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Wednesday, 31 January 2018

How to Use i.e. in a Sentence

The abbreviation “i.e.” stands for the Latin phrase id est, which means “ in other words” or “that is to say.”[1] You may be unsure how to use “i.e.” when you are writing an essay for a class or a brief for a business proposal. Start by deciding if “i.e.” will be effective in the sentence. Then, put “i.e.” in a sentence properly using commas so it is grammatically correct. With a few basic steps, you can use “i.e.” like a pro in no time.


EditDeciding When to Use “i.e.”

  1. Use "i.e." to say “that is” or “in other words.” Use the abbreviation "i.e.” when you want to add on to the first part of a sentence and give the reader more information. The information should explain the first part of the sentence in more detail so the reader understands it better.[2]
    Use i.e. in a Sentence Step 1.jpg
    • For example, you may write, “I am a vegan, i.e., I do not eat any animal-based products” or “He works the morning shift, i.e., from 6 am to 1 pm.”
  2. Do not use "i.e." to say “for example” or “such as.” The abbreviation “i.e.” should not be used if you want to provide an example or illustration of what you mean for readers. If this is the case, you should use “e.g.” instead of “i.e.” “E.g.” stands for the Latin phrase “for the sake of example.”[3]
    Use i.e. in a Sentence Step 2.jpg
    • For example, you would write, “I do not like eating raw fish, i.e., sushi.” and “I don't like Japanese food, e.g., sushi or ramen."
    • Or you may write, “She likes poetry about love, i.e., poems that explore matters of the heart” and “She likes poetry about love, e.g., poems by the New Romantics.”
  3. Use this abbreviation in informal documents or as shorthand. You may put “i.e.” in a sentence if you are writing an email or a letter to a friend, an informal piece of writing for a class, or a quick business note. If you are writing a formal business document or an academic paper, consider using “that is” or “in other words” instead.[4]
    Use i.e. in a Sentence Step 3.jpg
    • In some cases, using “i.e.” in a news article, an essay, or an academic paper may be okay. Double check with your instructor to make sure it is appropriate for you to use this abbreviation in a paper or essay.

EditPutting “i.e.” in a Sentence

  1. Lowercase it and use periods. The abbreviation “i.e.” should always appear with a lowercase “i” and a lowercase “e” in a sentence, with a period between both letters.[5]
    Use i.e. in a Sentence Step 4.jpg
  2. Do not italicize or bold it. The abbreviation "i.e." does not need to be formatted differently than the rest of the document or paper. Leave it in regular case, with no italicizing or bolding.[6]
    Use i.e. in a Sentence Step 5.jpg
  3. Place a comma before and after “i.e.” This will help the abbreviation stand out and let the reader know you are providing additional information after “i.e.”[7]
    Use i.e. in a Sentence Step 6.jpg
    • For example, you may write, “He prefers native plants in the garden, i.e., plants that naturally grow in the area” or “I have a soft spot for holiday music, i.e., songs that are about Christmas or Halloween.”
  4. Put "i.e." in the middle of a sentence, never at the beginning or end. The abbreviation “i.e.” should always appear after the first section of the sentence, in the middle, so it is grammatically correct.[8]
    Use i.e. in a Sentence Step 7.jpg
    • For example, the sentence, “I.e. he likes super heroes” or the sentence, “He likes super heroes, i.e.” are incorrect. The correct sentence would be, “He likes super heroes, i.e., social misfits who save the world.”

EditSources and Citations

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17 Tweets About Dogs That Deserve A Round Of Appaws

Doggone it they’re adorable.

Twitter / Via Twitter: @MelanieWang2

Twitter / Via Twitter: @muahhday

Twitter / Via Twitter: @girlbitesback

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How to Lose Weight Through Clean Eating

Clean eating involves incorporating more whole foods like vegetables, fruits, and grains into your diet while eliminating processed, packaged foods. Eating a clean, balanced diet can be a struggle, as you may not know how to avoid unhealthy snacks and meals high in fat. Take small steps like trying to follow a healthy meal plan and cutting out unhealthy foods and junk food a little at a time. You can also maintain a clean eating diet by tracking your calorie intake and your meals so you stay healthy. Though you may find clean eating difficult at first, with a few dietary changes and some persistence, you should lose weight and develop eating habits that will help you to keep the weight off.


EditCutting out Unhealthy Ingredients and Junk Food

  1. Replace refined sugar with fresh fruit once a week. Try to cut out cookies, cakes, candy, and sweets that contain refined sugar and substitute them for fresh fruit like apples, pears, strawberries, peaches, and mangos at least once a week. Slice the fruit for an easy snack or make a fresh fruit salad with just fruit and no added sugar.[1]
    Lose Weight Through Clean Eating Step 1.jpg
    • Start by replacing sugary treats with fresh fruit once a week and then amp it up to twice or three times a week. Over time, you should try to replace almost all sugary treats in your diet for fresh fruit, for many days in a row as you can manage.
  2. Have whole-wheat grains instead of refined grains in at least 1-2 of your meals. Buy foods made with whole-wheat, such as whole-wheat pasta, bread, and crackers when you go grocery shopping. Start by replacing white bread, pasta, and rice in 1-2 of your meals with whole-wheat wraps, quinoa, and brown rice.[2]
    Lose Weight Through Clean Eating Step 2.jpg
  3. Cut down on packaged food and junk food to 1-2 times a week. Packaged foods like microwave dinners, pre-made sandwiches, and prepared soups are all high in sodium, fat, and unhealthy ingredients. Fast food is also high in fat and low in nutrients. Aim to reduce your consumption of these foods to only a couple of times a week. Over time, try to limit yourself to having fast food 1-2 times a month.[3]
    Lose Weight Through Clean Eating Step 3.jpg
    • Try to have packaged or junk food only as an occasional treat!
  4. Have food with less sodium and saturated fat. Opt for low-sodium soy sauce and other prepared sauces. Soak dry beans overnight or in a slow cooker, as canned beans have a high sodium content. Have fresh fruits and vegetables in your meals, as they have less sodium and fat.[4]
    Lose Weight Through Clean Eating Step 4.jpg
  5. Try replacing sugary drinks with water. Rather than reach for a soda, a packaged juice, or another cup of coffee, sip water instead. Carry a water bottle with you so you always have water on hand. Try to have more water throughout the day and limit or cut out any other drinks.[5]
    Lose Weight Through Clean Eating Step 5.jpg
    • Add fresh sliced lemon or cucumber to your water to make it more flavorful.

EditFollowing a Healthy Meal Plan

  1. Have three meals a day, preferably at the same time every day. Try not to skip any meals, as this can throw off your appetite and cause you to reach for unhealthy foods. Plan to eat every 4-5 hours so your body has enough nutrients and energy. Have a good breakfast, a larger lunch, and a nutrient-rich dinner every day so you can establish an eating routine.[6]
    Lose Weight Through Clean Eating Step 6.jpg
    • For example, you may have breakfast at 8 or 9 am, lunch at 12 or 1 pm, and dinner at around 5 or 6 pm every day.
  2. Cook at home as much as you can. Create a shopping list for the week and buy ingredients for each meal at the start of the week so you can cook for yourself at home. Include more healthy foods in each meal so you can eat clean. Keep your meals simple, with lots of fresh ingredients.[7]
    Lose Weight Through Clean Eating Step 7.jpg
    • For example, you may make Sundays your day to shop for fresh ingredients for the week. You may then plan out 4-5 dinners for the week, keeping in mind you can have leftovers to eat for lunch or for days when you do not want to cook.
  3. Try to add variety to your meals. Keep your meals interesting so you do not get bored or become tempted to eat out too much. Try having a different type of whole grain or healthy protein source a week for variety. Add a new vegetable or fruit to your meal plan. Look for healthy sauces you can prepare at home to give your meals a little more zip.[8]
    Lose Weight Through Clean Eating Step 8.jpg
    • Search for new recipes that focus on clean eating online by looking at healthy food blogs and websites.
    • Buy clean eating cookbooks to get new ideas for recipes.
  4. Go for healthy, clean meals when you eat out. Try to find restaurants that offer locally grown, organic foods. Look for options on the menu like a salad with whole grains and vegetables or a sandwich on whole-wheat bread. Substitute fries on the side for a salad or a healthier option. Try to stick to clean eating as much as you can when you eat out so your diet does not get thrown off.
    Lose Weight Through Clean Eating Step 9.jpg
  5. Have healthy snacks once a week to start. Plan ahead by packing almonds, cashews, or macadamia nuts in plastic bags or containers so you can snack on them between meals. Cut up fresh fruit or vegetables and have them on hand as a snack. Try having at least 1 healthy snack a week and then gradually, replace most of your unhealthy snacks with healthy ones.[9]
    Lose Weight Through Clean Eating Step 10.jpg
    • You can also pack healthy dips like hummus, black bean dip, or baba ganoush to add a little something extra to your snack.

EditMaintaining Healthy Eating Habits

  1. Eat 250-500 calories less than the recommended amount every day. This will help you lose per week at a healthy pace. The recommended amount of calories a day is 2,000-2,400 for women, and 2,600-3,000 for men. Subtract 250-500 from your recommended daily amount and focus on eating that many calories every day.
    Lose Weight Through Clean Eating Step 11.jpg
  2. Keep a food journal or use an app. Record your meals every day in a journal to keep track of your eating habits. Notice if your meals are starting to contain more healthy foods and less prepackaged foods. Use the journal as a guide to help you maintain a clean eating diet.
    Lose Weight Through Clean Eating Step 12.jpg
    • If you'd prefer to keep track of your meals on your smartphone, download a healthy eating app like MyFitnessPal, Noom, SideChef, or SimpleSteps.
  3. Track your weight loss with photographs so you have a visual reference. Take the photographs once a week at the same time every day in the same clothing. Expose areas like your stomach and legs so you can notice weight loss in these areas.[10]
    Lose Weight Through Clean Eating Step 13.jpg
    • You may notice small changes in the photographs at first. As you continue to change your diet, you should notice more significant weight loss.
  4. Talk to a dietitian for guidance. If you are struggling with clean eating and staying away from junk food or empty calories, contact a registered dietitian in your area. Look for a certified dietitian at your local wellness center or through your doctor. Ask them about ways that you can integrate clean eating into your diet and maintain healthy eating habits.[11]
    Lose Weight Through Clean Eating Step 14.jpg
    • You may also talk to a dietitian if you struggle with emotional eating, where you tend to eat unhealthy foods when you are feeling stressed, anxious, or upset. They can suggest ways that you can put your emotions into healthier activities, such as preparing a healthy meal or exercising.
  5. Work exercise into your daily life. Clean eating is a great way to maintain a healthy weight, but it should be complemented with exercise. Start off easy with simple cardio like walking, running or biking, then try to build up to taking fitness classes or joining a gym! Exercising can help you maintain a healthy lifestyle overall and promote weight loss.[12]
    Lose Weight Through Clean Eating Step 15.jpg
    • As you exercise, you should notice that eating clean is helping you feel strong and energetic for your workout. Clean eating should make it easier for you to exercise and stay fit.

EditSources and Citations

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How to Visit Japan

Japan is a popular tourist destination, full of beautiful scenery, delicious food, and a unique culture. Whether you are visiting for a few days or a few weeks, there is plenty to see and experience. Follow local customs and traditions during your visit to Japan so you can be respectful of the locals. You can also use public transit and rail travel to get around easily, and visit unique sites for a great experience. Make sure you plan your visit for the off season and bring cash with you so your trip goes smoothly.


EditMaking Your Trip Easy and Enjoyable

  1. Visit Japan during the off-season to avoid crowds. Japan will be the most crowded in the spring months for cherry blossom season and hard to travel around during Golden Week, a national holiday that usually occurs from late April to early May. You should also avoid visiting in the summer, as it can be very hot and humid. Instead, visit during the off-season, from late September-early March, to avoid crowds and enjoy good weather.[1]
    Visit Japan Step 1.jpg
    • If you are planning to do winter sports, you may opt to visit in the winter months so you can have access to good snow.
  2. Hire a guide service for holy sites or areas. You can arrange guided tours for certain regions or sites before you embark on your trip, or arrange them when you arrive. A guide may be useful for visits to shrines, temples, and holy sites where you may not understand the traditions or customers. Look for free guides run by volunteers at major sites or areas.[2]
    Visit Japan Step 2.jpg
    • You may also opt for a guide to take you on a food tour in a major city like Tokyo so you know the best spots to visit.
  3. Bring cash with you. It is common to pay for most items in Japan with cash. Take out Japanese yen before you travel so you have cash on hand. Look for currency exchanges at banks, post offices, or malls to take out cash as needed.[3]
    Visit Japan Step 3.jpg
    • Carry a decent amount of cash to start, at least 5,000-7,000 yen. A basic meal in Japan can cost between 1,000- 3,000 yen.
    • You can use your debit or credit card in major cities if you do not have cash on hand. Make sure your contact your bank and let them know you are traveling to Japan so they do not freeze your account.
  4. Have a working cell phone. Get a SIM card that works in Japan for your cell phone so you can use it when you travel. Make sure your phone is unlocked so you can put a different SIM card in it. You may load the SIM card with data so you can access maps and browse the internet for information.[4]
    Visit Japan Step 4.jpg
    • You can also rent a cell phone in Japan for occasional use using your credit card.
  5. Buy souvenirs to take home before you leave Japan. Japan has many options if you’d like to bring home souvenirs for yourself or loved ones. Look for pretty packaged Japanese sweets or pick up a bottle of Japanese whisky. You can also bring home traditional Japanese tea or sake.[5]
    Visit Japan Step 5.jpg

EditGetting around

  1. Carry an updated map or use a map app on your smartphone. It can be tricky to navigate the streets of Tokyo and other major cities in Japan, especially if you are travelling on foot or with public transit. Make it easy by carrying a printed, updated map with you that features street names in Japanese and English. With a data plan, you can also use a map app on your smartphone to help you navigate the area.[6]
    Visit Japan Step 6.jpg
  2. Rent a car if you plan to explore rural areas. Renting a car may be a good idea if you plan to explore regions outside of major cities or if you are traveling with a large group with a lot of luggage. Avoid renting a car if you plan on staying and exploring major cities, as traffic can be bad and the streets can be confusing for non-locals.[7]
    Visit Japan Step 7.jpg
    • You will need to be 18 years or older and have an International Driving Permit, or a Japanese driver’s license, to rent a car.
    • Book the rental car online before you leave for your trip, or look into renting a car once you arrive in a major city for rural travel.
  3. Use local transit for cheap travel. Take the subway in major cities like Tokyo to save you money and get around fast. Invest in day passes if you plan on taking a few trips on transit per day.[8]
    Visit Japan Step 8.jpg
    • Most transit maps are easy to navigate and connect you to major areas or sites in the city.
  4. Try walking to nearby sites or restaurants. Many Japanese people walk the streets to get around. Try walking from your accommodations to a nearby tourist site or area. Walk to and from a restaurant close by. You can also do a walking tour of areas in major cities to get a better sense of the atmosphere and vibe.[9]
    Visit Japan Step 9.jpg
    • Japan is considered relatively safe, especially for foreigners. You should still be careful not to walk around late at night alone, though.
  5. Get a rail pass for affordable long distance travel. Travelling around Japan by rail is a popular option, as it allows you to save money and enjoy stunning views from your train window. Look into buying a rail pass that gives you access to specific areas or routes in Japan. Use rail travel when you can to keep your trip cheap and to sneak in some extra sightseeing.[10]
    Visit Japan Step 10.jpg
    • Buy a rail pass before you land in Japan to ensure you get the best price and do not have to worry about buying it once your arrive.
  6. Take a long distance bus to travel cheaply to different areas or regions. Buses in Japan are often roomy and comfortable. They are also a lot cheaper than taking a bullet train. Overnight buses are a good option if you want to avoid paying for a hotel for one night and want to explore areas or regions around major cities.[11]
    Visit Japan Step 11.jpg
    • Look up the bus routes online before you leave so you can plan your bus trip.
    • If you have a limited amount of time to spend in Japan, you may opt for a faster option like rail travel.

EditFinding Accommodations

  1. Book accommodations in a budget hotel or hostel to save money. Compare rates for hotels online to find one within your budget. Look for hostels online as well and book them in advance. Try to get the hotel or hostel is in a central area, preferably within walking distance to major sites and public transit.[12]
    Visit Japan Step 12.jpg
    • One night in a hostel can cost 1500-3000 yen per person and one night in a business hotel on the lower end can cost 5000-7000 yen for a single room.
    • Keep in mind hotels and hostels in less central areas will be cheaper. A long as the hotel or hostel is close to a transit stop, you should be fine to get around.
  2. Stay in a capsule hotel if you don't mind enclosed spaces. Capsule hotels are designed to hold one person at a time and are stacked top of each, creating very close sleeping quarters. They are a fun experience for one night. Go for a non-smoking capsule hotel if you do not like sleeping near cigarette smoke.[13]
    Visit Japan Step 13.jpg
    • Capsule hotels are also a good option if you miss your train or bus and need somewhere cheap to stay for the night.
  3. Spend at least one night in a traditional ryokan or guest house. A traditional ryokan, or guest house, has been maintained and preserved to represent traditional Japanese-style lodgings. They are usually made of wood, with Japanese-style rooms and baths. There is also usually a traditional garden by the guest house. Though the rooms may appear bare by Western standards, they are representative of what Japanese lodgings once were.[14]
    Visit Japan Step 14.jpg
    • You can opt to stay in a more luxurious ryokan if you want rooms that are a bit more modern. They will be more expensive than traditional ryokans, but they are usually located close to a natural hot spring and have stunning views.

EditHaving Unique Experiences

  1. Go on a food and shopping tour of Tokyo. Tokyo is considered the main hub and metropolis in Japan. Visit traditional tea houses, noodle shops, and hostess bars for a culinary experience. Go to the major shopping centers in Tokyo to find one-of-a-kind fashion, toys, and souvenirs.[15]
    Visit Japan Step 15.jpg
    • Break up your tour of Tokyo by area, such as Asakusa in the Northeast, the Tsukiji Fish Market in Central Tokyo, the temples and shrines in the West, and Roppongi in the East for shopping and museums. Spend a few days exploring each area, using public transit or a car to visit each section of the city.
  2. Go skiing or snowboarding in the Japanese Alps. Japan has a stretch of mountains in Central Honshu full of fresh powder for skiing or boarding. It also has stunning views and hot springs. Visit this area for something a bit different, especially if you are an avid winter sports person.[16]
    Visit Japan Step 16.jpg
    • You can also stay in a mountain resort in this area and do a winter hike.
  3. Visit Hiroshima for a historic experience. Go to the site of the atomic bombing during WWII to learn more about the tragic event. There is a museum with detailed information about the bombing and tributes to the victims of the attack.[17]
    Visit Japan Step 17.jpg
    • You can take a 1.5 hour flight from Tokyo to Hiroshima or take the bullet train and get there just as fast.
    • For a cheaper option, take an overnight, 13 hour bus ride from Tokyo to Hiroshima.
  4. Go to Kyoto to see shrines, temples, and gardens. Kyoto is a popular major city that is considered the home of traditional Japan. It contains beautiful gardens and palaces dating back to the Imperial court, as well as traditional shrines and temples.[18]
    Visit Japan Step 18.jpg

EditFollowing Local Customs and Traditions

  1. Give others room in public spaces. Japanese people like to have a lot of room to move around and sit. Try not to crowd too close to others when you are in public spaces like a city street, a subway platform, or a restaurant. Maintain your distance, giving others of space, so you do not appear too aggressive or overbearing.[19]
    Visit Japan Step 19.jpg
  2. Remove your shoes before you step inside someone’s home. It is part of tradition, and good hygiene, to take off your shoes before you step into someone’s home or office. You may get in the habit of wearing socks with your shoes or bringing socks with you so you can keep your feet covered.[20]
    Visit Japan Step 20.jpg
    • If you forget to remove your shoes, do not fret. Simply apologize and return to the door to remove them.
  3. Treat holy shrines and areas with respect. Keep your voice low and avoid shouting or yelling when you are at a shrine or holy site. Keep photography to a minimum, especially if there are holy processions going on. Try to maintain a quiet, respectful demeanor, even if you are not religious.[21]
    Visit Japan Step 21.jpg
    • It may be worthwhile to hire a guide when you visit a holy shrine or site so you can better understand the holy traditions and practices. Look for guides offering tours in the front of the shrine or site.
  4. Bow when you greet others. It is traditional and respectful in Japan to bow when you say hello or goodbye to someone, when you thank them, and when you congratulate them. Bow from the waist at a 45 degree angle, keeping your back straight and your legs together. Look down when you bow and avoid sticking your butt out. Inhale as you bow, exhale as you hold the bow, and inhale again when you rise up.[22]
    Visit Japan Step 22.jpg
    • If you are interacting with individuals you know well, such as family or friends, you can nod your head and bow slightly forward with a straight back rather than do a full bow.
  5. Do not stick your chopsticks in a bowl of rice when you eat. Putting your chopsticks upright in rice is common practice during funeral rites in Japan so do not do this when you are eating in public or around Japanese people. Keep your chopsticks flat on the bowl or resting against your plate.[23]
    Visit Japan Step 23.jpg
    • You should also not pass food to others with your chopsticks, as this is considered rude.
    • If you are not comfortable using chopsticks, you can always request a fork or spoon instead.
  6. Check the posted rules around tattoos at public baths before you get in. Many public bathing houses and hot springs do not allow people with tattoos to enter. You may need to cover up your tattoos with bandages out of respect for the rules.[24]
    Visit Japan Step 24.jpg
    • You can also book a private room at a public bath or spa so you do not have to worry about covering up your tattoos.

EditSources and Citations

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Tuesday, 30 January 2018

How to Test Liver Function

Testing your liver function may be a good idea if you have a history of liver issues in your family, as some liver conditions can be hereditary. Your doctor may also suggest you get your liver function tested if you have abdominal pain, have a history of hepatitis C, use alcohol regularly, have suspected liver issues, or may be suffering side effects from certain medications, such as cholesterol medicine. This test can be done by drawing a blood sample from a vein in your arms. Your doctor can then help you understand your test results and provide information on how to treat your liver function issues.


EditGetting the Blood Test

  1. Do not eat the night before the test unless your doctor approves it. Fast for at least 8 hours before the test to ensure the results are accurate. You can drink water, but have no food. Your doctor should discuss the importance of fasting before you take the test.[1]
    Test Liver Function Step 1.jpg
    • Even if your doctor approves eating, you should not drink alcohol the night before the test.
    • The blood test should not be too taxing and you should be able to drive yourself home after the test. However, if you'd prefer not to drive after the test, ask someone to drop you off for the test and pick you up.
  2. Discuss any medications you are taking with your doctor. Let your doctor know about any prescription or over-the-counter medication you are taking. You should also tell your doctor if you are taking any supplements or herbs.[2]
    Test Liver Function Step 2.jpg
    • Medication like oral corticosteroids and ones made to lower your cholesterol can affect the results of the test. Iron supplements and herbal supplements can also skew the results.
    • Your doctor may suggest that you abstain from taking medication 1-2 days before the test to avoid skewing the results. Do not stop taking medication unless your doctor suggests that you do this.
  3. Wear loose clothing to your appointment. Make it easy for you to expose your arms to your doctor or nurse by wearing a short sleeved shirt or a long sleeved top with arms that can be rolled up.
    Test Liver Function Step 3.jpg
  4. Let your doctor or nurse remove a sample of blood from a vein in your arm. Your doctor or nurse will sterilize the injection area with cleaning solution on a piece of gauze. Then, they will inject you with a syringe and draw a small amount of blood into a collection tube attached to the syringe. You may feel a slight sting when the needle is inserted and soreness in the area once the needle is removed.[3]
    Test Liver Function Step 4.jpg
    • If you are uncomfortable with needles, try distracting yourself by chatting with the doctor or nurse. You can also avoid looking at the needle directly so you are less nervous.
  5. Put pressure on the injection site and let it heal. Your doctor or nurse will provide gauze you can apply on the site to stop any bleeding. Your arm may be sore for a few days but the soreness should fade.
    Test Liver Function Step 5.jpg
    • The needle will leave a small wound at the injection site that should scab over within a few days. If the wound becomes very red, inflamed, or is not scabbing over, go see your doctor.

EditDiscussing the Test Results with Your Doctor

  1. Meet with your doctor to find out the results within a few hours or days. The test results from your blood sample are usually processed fairly quickly. Your doctor will then contact you to inform you of your test results. They may also set up an office appointment for you to discuss your test results in detail, if necessary.[4]
    Test Liver Function Step 6.jpg
  2. Find out if you have any signs of acute or chronic liver damage. Your doctor will run a series of panels on your blood sample to see if you have a high amount of certain enzymes in your blood. High levels of enzymes like Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) may be a sign that you have liver damage.[5]
    Test Liver Function Step 7.jpg
    • They will also run a panel on your blood sample to determine if you have a low amount of protein in your blood, such as globulin and albumin. Low levels of these proteins can indicate you have liver damage or your liver is not functioning properly.
    • High levels of these enzymes and low protein levels may also indicate you have a liver issue like hepatitis or cirrhosis. These conditions are often caused by chronic alcohol consumption.
  3. Check if your results indicate you have bile duct issue. Your doctor will also run a panel to determine how much bilirubin is in your blood, which is a yellow fluid your body produces in your liver. If you test very high for bilirubin, you may have a malfunctioning bile duct or a blockage in your liver that is causing bilirubin to leak into your blood.[6]
    Test Liver Function Step 8.jpg
    • Bile duct issues can also cause your skin and eyes to appear yellow or jaundiced. In some cases, your urine may appear very dark.
  4. Do follow up tests with your doctor. Your doctor will evaluate your blood test results as a whole. Depending on your results, they may also order follow up tests like a hepatitis virus test and ultrasound imaging of your liver and gallbladder.[7]
    Test Liver Function Step 9.jpg
    • Your doctor may also monitor your liver function over a period of several weeks and do another blood test to confirm your diagnosis.
  5. Allow your doctor to take a biopsy of your liver, if needed. In some cases, your doctor may need to take a very small sample of your liver to confirm your diagnosis. A biopsy of your liver is done while you under sedation. The doctor will insert a small biopsy needle into your abdomen or neck to extract a sample of your liver. The sample will be very small and will not affect the functioning of your liver.[8]
    Test Liver Function Step 10.jpg
    • The biopsy is then sent to the lab for analysis. The results of the biopsy will help your doctor determine your diagnosis in more detail.

EditTreating Liver Function Issues

  1. Make lifestyle and diet changes to treat hepatitis or cirrhosis. Your doctor will recommend you switch to eating a nutritious, balanced diet and if you have cirrhosis, to quit drinking alcohol. They may also suggest you have vitamin and mineral supplements to help your liver recover.[9]
    Test Liver Function Step 11.jpg
    • If you are overweight, your doctor may suggest you lose weight by doing daily exercise and maintain a healthy weight as part of your recovery plan.
    • People who have central obesity, meaning they mostly gain weight around their abdomen, also gain weight around their internal organs, including the liver. This can lead to "fatty liver" disease and abnormal liver blood tests. Weight loss will alleviate your symptoms.
    • Keep in mind cirrhosis is a progressive disease that will only get worse if you do not make lifestyle and diet changes. You will need to maintain these changes for the remainder of your life to prevent further damage to your liver.
  2. Take medication to treat liver damage. If your test results show you have acute or chronic liver damage, your doctor may prescribe medication to help your liver function properly. Discuss dosage for these medications with your doctor and never take more than prescribed.[10]
    Test Liver Function Step 12.jpg
    • The type of medication you receive will depend on whether you have acute or chronic liver disease and if you also have bile duct issues.
    • You will likely need to take medication along with making lifestyle and diet changes to treat your liver issue effectively.
  3. Discuss a liver transplant with your doctor if your condition is severe. If your liver is damaged beyond repair, your doctor may suggest a liver transplant. During a liver transplant, your damaged liver is replaced with a functioning liver from a deceased or living donor. You may need to be put on a donor wait list or find out if any family members or friends are a good match and can donate a part of their liver for the procedure.[11]
    Test Liver Function Step 13.jpg
    • Your doctor should outline this procedure in detail for you so you are aware of the risks and possible side effects.
    • You will need to take medication to help your new liver regenerate and function well. You will also need to spend 4-6 weeks recovering and check in regularly with your doctor to ensure your new liver is working properly.


  • Avoiding the usage of food and alcohol can give you better results.
  • Liver transplants are lengthy, and could not always work. Doctors would have to get a liver donor that matches your blood type, and something that your body will accept.


  • Avoid alcohol while your liver is strengthening. Alcohol can affect the functions of your new liver.

EditSources and Citations

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