$3 Per Year Web Hosting

Tuesday, 31 January 2017

How to Plan a Backpacking Trip

With a little effort, backpacking trips can be serious fun. A well-planned trip will allow you to camp in beautiful places without having to deal with unnecessary crowds associated with campgrounds and RV sites. If you want to experience the thrill of hoofing into the wilderness and finding your way back out, you can learn to plan your trip safely and thoroughly. Learn what you'll need to bring, how to plan a trip effectively, and keep your group as safe as possible.


EditPlanning Your Trip

  1. Go on day hikes first, then overnight hikes. Before you set out for a multi-day trip, try a couple of day hikes through various kinds of terrain and weather to find out how it suits you. It's good idea to make sure you enjoy hoofing around out in the woods before you find yourself out in the middle of a 14 mile loop in the wilderness.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 1 Version 3.jpg
    • Try a few hikes without any gear, but plenty of water, light snacks, a map of the area, and the right boots. Go out for a mile or two with some friends and have fun.
    • If you like that, try going on a longer hike, for several miles of somewhat rougher terrain. If you like that, take your bag with you and see how you enjoy it. Gradually build up to a series trip.
  2. Pick a general destination for your backpacking trip. Are you interested in the mountains? The grasslands? The great lakes? Depending on where you live, the backcountry may be close by, or you may want to venture out farther for a serious hiking experience. In most areas, you shouldn’t need to travel more than a half a day by car to find a good National or State Park in which you can hike and camp.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 2 Version 3.jpg
    • Pick an appropriate time of year for that destination, as well. Some destinations are very crowded at certain times of year, or around holidays, while others are inappropriate for backpacking at certain times of the year. It'd be bad to head out to the desert in the middle of the summer if you're a first-timer.[1]
    • It's also usually good to avoid areas with bears during bear-heavy seasons, which will vary from region to region.
  3. Pick a specific park or wilderness area. Want to hike the Cumberland Gap? Explore Yosemite? Pitch a tent in the Grand Tetons? Once you’ve settled on a particular region of the country you’d like to explore, pick an area that’s appropriate for backcountry camping. Within the US, here are some of the best destinations for serious camping:
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 3 Version 3.jpg
    • Yosemite National Park, CA
    • Joshua Tree, CA
    • Denali National Park, AK
    • White Mountain National Forest, NH
    • Olympic National Park, WA
    • Zion National Park, UT
    • Glacier National Park, MT
    • Big Bend National Park, TX
  4. Plan your route through the area. Different wilderness areas and parks will have a variety of options available to backcountry hikers, so consult park maps of the area to find the specific trails, or find some online by checking out the National Parks website.[2] Typically, long hikes come in three styles, which you can pick based on the difficulty, the type of terrain, and the sights that you may want to see at your destination. The three basic types of backcountry hikes include:
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 4 Version 3.jpg
    • Loop hikes, which follow a long circle that will allow you to end up back where you started.
    • Out and back hikes, during which you'll hike to a specific destination and then retrace your steps backward.
    • End to end hikes usually require leaving a car at both ends, or arranging pick-up at your eventual destination. This is only typically done for very long hikes that go through multiple areas.
  5. Be fairly conservative with your routes and schedule on your first trips. While you might want to jump right in and do something difficult, you'll need to consider the terrain, weather, and the experience and conditioning of your group when planning how many miles you will travel each day. Most trails are rated for difficulty, so you'll usually want to stick with anything at a level 1 or 2 for your first several hikes. They'll be challenging enough.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 5 Version 3.jpg
    • Novices and weekend warriors should plan on hiking no more than per day of a given hike. In relatively tough terrain, that'll be more than enough.
    • Experienced hikers in good shape can sometimes do per day, depending on terrain, but it's usually best to not push it.
  6. Check to see if your destination requires permits or other advance preparation. If you’re camping on public land, there will typically be a small fee associated with coming into the park itself, and another fee associated with camping. They’re usually pretty small, and you can get away with no more than $15 dollars or so a night, depending on the season.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 6 Version 3.jpg
    • At most parks, you’ll have to display a permit on your car while you hike, and something on your tent, or bag, as well. The local regulations will be explained to you when you check in to the ranger’s office upon your arrival.
    • Most National Parks and other public lands will also have guidelines specific to their environments, at the time of year you’re camping. For example, Yosemite National Park requires the use of bear-proof canisters for food.
  7. Find out local fire regulations. Campfires are great, so long as they’re legal. Many areas prohibit fires during dry periods. At other times, they may only be allowed in specific locations, typically fire rings located at campsites. In some places a separate campfire permit is required to use a backcountry cooking stove.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 7 Version 3.jpg
    • Never, ever, leave a fire unattended. Do not light a fire unless you have enough water available to extinguish it thoroughly. As a precaution, clear a 15-foot (~5m) circular area around your fire, to prevent the wind from igniting any materials outside of your fire pit.

EditPacking for a Hike

  1. Get a sturdy backpack that fits your frame. Backpacking backpacks, or rucksacks, need to be sturdy enough to carry a significant amount of weight, but light enough so that you won't be in serious pain at the end of a long hike. Look for a bag with an internal frame, chest straps, and a waist-band to help secure the bag on your body properly.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 8 Version 3.jpg
    • Backpacking bags are sold at most sporting goods stores, and are matched to your body size and height. It's a good idea to go be fitted for one, to make sure it fits you properly.
    • Your backpack should have enough space for some food and water, a first aid kit, rain gear, sun gear, flashlight or headlamp and batteries, a tent and sleeping bag, even though you might not need all that for a group hike.
  2. Wear sensible hiking boots. Hiking isn't hiking without the proper footwear. If you're going to be walking many miles, you want to make sure you're in shoes that will stand up to the stress. The best bet? Get a pair of waterproof boots with enough support and strength to get you through the trip.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 9 Version 3.jpg
    • Never go out for a multi-day trip with nothing but sandals, or a flimsy pair of sneakers. Sometimes, tennis shoes can be great, lightweight, and perfect for hiking in some environments, but you want to make sure you've got something sturdy enough for the terrain you'll encounter.
  3. Bring layers. Dressing in layers allows you to be comfortable in many different weather conditions. Even though it might be warm when you hit the trailhead doesn’t mean that the weather will remain the same throughout the day.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 10 Version 3.jpg
    • Mountains are notorious for volatile and quick-changing weather systems. Even if it is 90 degrees when you head out, pack a light bag with rain gear, or at least a coat. You also need a hat, gloves, sock liners and socks, underwear, lightweight pants and shorts and good sturdy hiking boots.[3]
    • Try to bring synthetic, wool, or down fabrics, which will keep you warm and dry quickly, instead of cotton.
    • Bring plenty of socks. You'll be walking a lot, and it's important to keep your feet clean and dry on the trip.
  4. Pack plenty of light-weight, high-calorie food for everyone. Hiking in the backcountry usually isn't the time for s'mores and bacon. If you're traveling light, you want to choose food like reconstituted soups and stews that are made with water, or commercially packaged freeze-dried food. You can also learn to dehydrate your own. Pasta is also a commonly eaten hiking food.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 11 Version 3.jpg
    • It can be helpful for everyone to be responsible for their own snacks but to have a communal dinner. Bring high-calorie and high-protein snacks, like nuts and dried fruit, which can help to fuel you and get you moving. Good ol' raisins and peanuts.[4]
  5. Pack as a group, not as individuals. Everyone should bring their own sleeping bag, and there should be enough tent space for everyone present. That much is obvious. But you don't want to end up in the backcountry with three people and four tents, or five camp stoves and only one canister of fuel between the three of you. Pack smart. Compare gear with your group and share the essential equipment that you'll all be using, and space it out among your packs.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 12 Version 3.jpg
    • Bring at least one:
      • Water filter
      • Camp stove
      • Cooking pot or pan
    • Consider duplicating essential items, like:
      • First aid kit
      • Compass
      • Copy of the map
      • Lighter or matches
      • Flashlight
  6. Check your equipment inventory. It's important to make sure all gear is in working order. Give yourself time to test equipment and replace/repair anything that is not working properly. Remember, if an item breaks, you will still need to haul it back.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 13 Version 3.jpg
    • Clean out your tent, if you haven't since the last time you used it. It's important to get rid of any debris and especially food particles that might remain in the tent, if you've not used it in a while. Set it up and let it air out before you pack it again.
    • Always get new lighters, new camp fuel, and check the batteries of any flashlights or other items that can fail in the wilderness and leave you struggling.
  7. Pack a whistle and a mirror. Every backcountry camper needs to have in their bag a whistle and a mirror in the event of an emergency. If a hiker becomes separated from the group, the whistle can be used to help find the separated camper. If the event of a more serious emergency, mirrors can be used to signal rescue teams, by reflecting sunlight. Small stuff that can be a life-saver.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 14 Version 3.jpg
  8. Bring maps of the area. Having a detailed map of the area you'll be hiking is critical to a good and safe hike. Park maps are typically available at trail heads, as well as at the Visitor's Center of most areas, or you can find your own topographical maps at sporting goods stores.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 15 Version 3.jpg
    • National and State Park maps are typically low resolution, which can be fine for day hikes, but British Ordnance Survey or USGS (US Geologic Survey) have elevation contours and are more accurate and reliable in an emergency, provided you know how to read them. These maps are available at most sporting good stores in the area that you'll hike.
    • Carry a compass and know how to read it and use it with your map.
    • You can use some software programs to print your copy on waterproof paper if you cannot access any of the ready printed ones. A GPS device can pinpoint your location, but you should still carry a map and compass.
  9. Balance your pack properly. Your backpack might feel ok now, but you'll start to notice that it's unbalanced after a few miles and get a serious strain on one shoulder. It's important to try to space out the heavy items in your bag and keep things relatively balanced from side-to-side, and from top-to-bottom.[5]
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 16 Version 2.jpg
    • Put the heaviest things toward your back, and low in the bag to help keep you on balance. In general, you want to start packing with the bulkiest and the heaviest items, then stuff extra space with things like clothes and other gear.
    • Read this article for more information about packing your backpack properly.

EditPlanning for Safety

  1. Familiarize yourself with local hazards. Before you set out, you need to be aware of the unique dangers that the area poses to hikers. Is there poison oak to watch out for? Rattlesnakes? Bears? Is it wasp season? What do you do if you're stung?
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 17 Version 2.jpg
  2. Always go with a group. Backcountry hiking needs to happen in a group, unless you're a very experienced hiker. Aim for a small group of like-minded friends, between 2-5 people for a safe hiking trip your first time out. Ideally, you'll want to have an experienced hiker who is familiar with the area you're hiking.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 18 Version 2.jpg
    • If you are experienced, you have the opportunity to introduce a newcomer to the wonders of backpacking. If you have never been backpacking, you might want to consider going on your first trip with an experienced hiker.
    • It's best if your camping partners are somewhat compatible in terms of hiking speed, distance they are willing to hike, and camping style. Some people like to travel lightly and hike long distances. Others prefer just getting out of sight of the car.
    • If you travel solo make sure someone knows your plans and that you have the equipment and skills to be self-sufficient.
  3. Carry more than enough water to get you from one source to the next. Water is heavy, but critical on a hiking trip. You need to bring enough water so that everyone has at least 2 liters of clean water to drink each day, especially if you're working hard and sweating on your hike.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 19 Version 2.jpg
    • If you are using a water filter, bring replacement parts, including replacement filters. They often clog with sediment, or just plain break.
    • Boiling water for at least one minute is an effective backup method, in an emergency.[6]
  4. Check in with someone before you leave. Leave a detailed itinerary with someone who is not going on the trip, including your route, inventory, areas you plan to stay. It's important that someone knows when you expect to return, so they can check in if you're late. Be sure to contact them after you have safely returned.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 20 Version 2.jpg
    • Leave a note on your car, at least. This can be very helpful in the event that you don't show back up to the car on time.
    • Check in at the ranger station or the Visitor's Center before you go camping. This is an easy way to let people know how long you're going to be in the area.
  5. Pace yourselves. An average hiking pace is 2-3 miles per hour. Don't get overambitious. Shoot for less, rather than more, so you can take time to enjoy the sights. Determine the approximate area where you will camp each night ahead of time. Try to plan your trip so that you camp close to a reliable water source each night.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 21 Version 2.jpg
  6. Don't keep food in your tent. All of your food needs to be secured from bears, and kept separate from your tent, if you're going to be hiking in the backcountry. Even if bears aren't regularly found in the area you're hiking, it's important to protect yourself from all sorts of curious animals, who might want to sneak a bite.
    Plan a Backpacking Trip Step 22.jpg
    • If you will be visiting an area with bears, bring a bag and rope to hang your food from a tree, or use an Ursack or bear canister, depending on local regulations.
    • Follow the same precautions with anything scented, including hair products, shampoo, lotions, toothpaste, and gum.
    • Always use the same bag for storing and hanging food and scented items, from campout to campout.


  • Check National Forests and Parks in the area for seasonal camping times, and required/prohibited items.
  • Check the USGS web site and get the Angle of Declination and know how to set your compass for that and how to read your map once set.
  • There are a lot of on-line resources for destinations, trails, and equipment lists, some of which are listed below.
  • If you are traveling abroad, know what items are prohibited to carry-on and check during flights. Although you might need a camp stove, you cannot pack fuel with you; buy the fuel at your destination.
  • Keep a multi-tool with you, it comes in handy.
  • Learn primitive fire if you're going deep woods camping.
  • Pack heavier things in the center of your pack instead of the bottom.


  • Check for signs of wild animals such as prints or scat. If fresh scat is in the area where you plan to camp, you may want to rethink your campsite.
  • Backpacking may be a lot of work, but it is awesome once you do it.
  • You should wear clothing made of materials that keep you warm even when wet, such as wool and fleece (especially in, but not limited to, cold environments). Avoid cotton. If you become stuck in wet weather, this may be the factor that saves your life.
  • Choose your campsite carefully. Look overhead for dead branches that might fall on your tent. Check the ground for evidence of prior flooding. If thunderstorms are in the forecast, avoid exposed ridges.

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations

Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found

from How to of the Day http://ift.tt/1fUPdUj
via Peter

11 Happy Little Things To Make You Smile This Week

Cheerful news stories and happy animals.

The world is a little bit sad at the minute.

The world is a little bit sad at the minute.

Dreamworks Pictures

So here's a bunch of nice news stories and cute animals to prove it's not all bad.

So here's a bunch of nice news stories and cute animals to prove it's not all bad.


Who knows, maybe they'll even make you smile!

Who knows, maybe they'll even make you smile!


View Entire List ›

from BuzzFeed - Animals http://ift.tt/2k7jLp3

This Baby Hippo Born 6 Weeks Early Is Working As Hard As She Can To Stand Up

The four-day-old hippo born prematurely at Cincinnati Zoo is also gaining weight as she gets around-the-clock care as she tries to stand on her own.

This hippo born six weeks prematurely is making progress toward standing on her own, the Cincinnati Zoo announced.

This hippo born six weeks prematurely is making progress toward standing on her own, the Cincinnati Zoo announced.

Cincinnati Zoo / Via youtube.com

The little Nile hippo was born to her mother, Bibi, who has been getting milked by zoo staff to supplement her baby's diet until she can nurse on her own.

The little Nile hippo was born to her mother, Bibi, who has been getting milked by zoo staff to supplement her baby's diet until she can nurse on her own.

Cincinnati Zoo / Via youtube.com

She gets plenty of rest, but when she's awake, zoo staff pack her time with activities to promote the development of her muscles so she can start standing, and walking, on her own.


View Entire List ›

from BuzzFeed - Animals http://ift.tt/2jhIgTk

How to Encourage Children to Ask Questions

Children are naturally curious and inquisitive. Asking questions is a great way for children to interact with their environment and build critical thinking skills.[1] While it can be challenging at times to keep up with children’s questions, create an environment that children feel safe to ask questions and be curious in. Encourage children to ask questions in many environments, including home, school, religious or spiritual centers, around people, at events, and during confusing situations.


EditAsking Questions at Home

  1. Allow curiosity. Adults often see the world through well-seasoned eyes, yet children are often seeing and experiencing things for the first time. This fills children with curiosity, wonder, and amazement.[2] Children often ask questions out of curiosity and not as a way to be annoying. Encourage your child to ask questions and be curious by responding with things like "Wow! Great question — you must be a very curious boy!" and then answer. This helps the child see himself as a question-asker.
    Empower People Step 7.jpg
    • See a child’s questions as an opportunity to engage with the child about something he is interested in.
  2. Let your child ask “why” questions. While this question often leads to frustration for adults, it’s often important for children to know why certain cause and effect relationships happen. For example, if you ask your child to do something, she may be curious as to why it’s important to do that task or behave in a certain way. Allow your child the space to ask why.[3]
    Get a Child to Stop Sucking Fingers Step 12.jpg
    • It’s important for children to know why things happen, why they need to be safe, why learning is important. Remind yourself that gaining information is important to your child.
    • Be okay with saying you don't know the answer. If your child asks you a question you can't answer, it's okay to say, "You know, I don't know!" Follow this up by encouraging your child to find the answer, or say "Let's find out together" so you can show your child what resources are available to answer her questions and how to use them.
  3. Value your child’s questions. If you get flustered or annoyed easily by your child’s questions, he may begin to think that you do not want to answer questions or that asking questions feels bad or is not okay. Focus on showing your child that questions matter by giving encouraging responses. This will encourage your child to ask questions freely and feel good about being curious.[4]
    Get a Child to Stop Sucking Fingers Step 8.jpg
    • If your child asks a question during an inconvenient time, promise to look it up and answer the question later. Be sure to follow through later; set a reminder for yourself on your phone if you need to.
  4. Pose questions to your child. Model asking questions in order to support your child asking questions. If your child asks you a question, ask one back to your child. This can help the child think critically or find a creative response. Asking questions back can help foster better social, emotional, and cognitive development.[5]
    Get a Child to Stop Sucking Fingers Step 7.jpg
    • Initiate questions with your child. Ask questions around specific activities. If you’re playing with trains, ask, “Why do we use trains? What do we use trains for? Where do trains go?”
    • If your child asks, “Why is that kid crying?” say back, “What do you think happened to make that child sad?” You can follow that questions with, “What things make you feel sad?”

EditSetting Up a Safe Environment to Learn

  1. Create a secure space. Make sure all children know that asking questions is okay and that no one will criticize or judge questions. It is especially important for shy or insecure children to know that there is no “wrong” question. Discourage feedback or edits to the questions. Remind children that it’s okay to ask questions they do not know the answers to.[6]
    Get a Child to Stop Sucking Fingers Step 4 Version 3.jpg
    • Other kids may say, “That’s a dumb question.” Redirect attention and assure the children that all questions are respected.
  2. Reward questions. Children are often rewarded for having the correct answer, and not for asking questions. Shift the focus to encourage questions. Give rewards for questions, even if the reward is just verbal praise. Children can learn that approaching topics through curiosity is rewarded, and rewards are not only for good test scores or high grades. This can encourage higher-level thinking and comprehension.[7]
    Get a Child to Stop Sucking Fingers Step 10.jpg
    • For example, say, “I love that you’re asking questions. Let’s explore this further.” You can also say, “Wow, what a great question!”
  3. Allow time for children to think of questions. Children may struggle to come up with questions at first. That’s okay. Allow them time to think and come up with ideas.[8] You can designate specific “Question Times” when children think of questions they may want to ask.
    Make Money As a Teen Girl Step 2 Version 2.jpg
    • Don’t put a time limit on the process at first and let the children have time to think through their questions.
  4. Roll with embarrassing questions. Children often ask what adults consider inappropriate or embarrassing questions, especially in public, such as: “Why is that girl in a wheelchair?” or “Why does that man have a different color skin?” Don’t shame or shush your child for asking these types of questions.[9] This can make the child feel ashamed, guilty, or embarrassed for asking a question. Instead, answer matter-of-factly without making the child feel bad about asking the question.
    Get a Job Fast Step 11.jpg
    • You can say, “Some people look different from you. Have you noticed that some people have glasses, some have curly hair, and some have different colored eyes? Every person is unique. Skin color is one way that people look different from you, but it doesn’t make people any different from you on the inside.”
  5. Avoid offering examples. While you may think that giving examples may help a child build questions, they can set the child onto a specific path. You want her to come up with original questions without putting up limits. She may struggle to come up with questions, and that’s okay. If she urges you to give guidance, say, “Your questions can begin with what, when, or how.”[10]
    Communicate Effectively Step 24 Version 2.jpg
    • You can also say, “I want to hear what you come up with. Your questions don’t have to follow any guidelines. Feel free to ask questions you think up.”

EditWorking in Groups to Generate Questions

  1. Divide children into groups. Group work can encourage kids to work together, bounce ideas off of each other, and increase creativity. It’s okay if groups are moving at different paces. If one group is struggling to come up with ideas, don’t push them. Remind them of the activity and keep them on task.[11]
    Make Money Easily (for Kids) Step 9.jpg
    • Encourage each child to contribute to the group without putting pressure on the children. Don’t make participation required through participation points. This can cause extreme stress for anxious and shy children.[12]
  2. Encourage questions around new topics. When a new topic is introduced, ask children what questions they’d like to have answered by the end of the unit. Encourage children to engage with materials and be curious about new things.[13]
    Make Money Easily (for Kids) Step 7.jpg
    • For example, if you are doing a unit on the scientific process, children may ask, “When will I use this?"; "Will this help me understand science better?"; "Can I use this in other areas of my life?”
  3. Make it fun. Children love games, so make question time into play. Allow children to get excited about asking questions. Play around with asking questions. Try to solve a problem with the group by allowing them to ask questions.[14]
    Make Money Easily (for Kids) Step 8.jpg
    • Some examples include, “Can you make closed questions open questions?"; "Can you make a statement into a question?"; "How can you get more information by asking a question?”
  4. Discourage children from answering the questions. As questions come up, the natural tendency is for the child (or other children) to provide an answer. Discourage these behaviors and encourage collaboration and generation of questions. Gently put the children back on track.[15]
    Get a Child to Stop Sucking Fingers Step 9.jpg
    • Say, “We’re not to the part of answering questions, yet. We are not focused on doing anything but creating questions.”

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citations

Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found

from How to of the Day http://ift.tt/2jRbXXw
via Peter

People Are Losing Their Minds Over This "Damn Thicc" Raccoon

“You need Jesus.”

"I'm losing my mind over these buttcheeks ... this raccoon DUMB thicc," she wrote.

View Entire List ›

from BuzzFeed - Animals http://ift.tt/2kayIsn

How to Make Paper

Are you a hoarder with heaps of old newspapers? Did your girlfriend dump you and now you want to do something artistic and destructive with her love letters? Are you looking for a rewarding project to do on a rainy day? If you answered yes to any of these questions, try making your own paper. All you need is some recyclable paper, water, a pan, screen and a blender.


EditPreparing Your Supplies

  1. Prepare your equipment. To make paper, you will mix pulp and water, then pour it onto a piece of window screen. Here are some different options for starting:
    Make Paper Step 1 Version 3.jpg
    • Frame method: Stretch a screen over a wooden frame (an old picture frame works well, or you can build your own) and staple it or nail it to the edges. Nearly any fine screen or sieve with holes about 1 mm small can be substituted for the window screen. The screen should be pulled as tightly as possible. Make sure the frame is large enough to hold the size of paper you wish to make. Additionally, you'll need a basin, bucket or pan that's larger than the frame.
    • Pan method: Purchase a deep, disposable aluminum pan from the grocery store, or find a deep casserole dish. Cut out a portion of screen that's the same shape as the bottom of the pan, but slightly larger.
  2. Find recyclable paper. Newspaper may be the easiest source to start with, but you can also use old print-outs, notes, phone books - just about any un-waxed paper product.Keep in mind that the color of the papers you use and the amount of dark ink on them will affect the "grayness" of your creation. Avoid using any glossy or shiny paper - it won't work as well.
    Make Paper Step 2 Version 4.jpg
    • Paper can also be made entirely of grass and leaves as well, in fact, that's how most paper was made until the 20th century! You must cut the vegetation in small pieces, soak it in caustic soda to "digest", strain it, and blend it to a pulp. Then pour it on the press. After it dries, you can proudly say, "This paper contains no trees!"

EditPulping the Paper

  1. Clean up the paper. Remove plastic, staples and other contaminants. Especially if you're using junk mail, your paper scraps are likely to contain plastic from envelope windows. Try to remove such impurities as thoroughly as possible.
    Make Paper Step 3 Version 4.jpg
  2. Tear the paper into small pieces. Don't spend to much time on this step, but do break up the paper into smaller pieces. A few rips per paper should be enough.

  3. Soak the paper in water. Put the smaller pieces of paper in a container (such as a bowl or cup) and cover them with water. Let them soak for 30 to 45 minutes.

    • If you want to make colored construction paper,use paper with the least amount of dark ink, use a lot of "pulp" and use liquid food coloring. The resulting paper will most likely be opaque on one side and bright on the other. Depending on your intended use, either side may be suitable, but the bright side will probably be better for writing.
    • If you want to have whiter paper, half a cup of white vinegar can be added to the pulp mixture.
  4. Turn the paper into pulp. Now that the recyclable paper is more wet and pliable, you can start the process of turning it into pulp - a thick, gooey, slightly watery substance that will eventually become your new piece of paper. Here are two possibilities:

    • Blend the paper. Rip the paper into tiny bits, and place it all into a blender until it's about half full. Fill the blender with warm water. Run the blender on "slow" at first, then increase the speed until the pulp looks smooth and well-blended - approximately 30 to 40 seconds - just until there are no flakes of paper remaining.
    • Mash the paper. If you have a mortar and pestle (or something similar, like the end of a rolling pin and a sturdy bowl) available, you can mash up the paper by hand. Work a handful at a time, and aim to get the pulp so that it's similar to the consistency of watery oatmeal.

EditSetting the Paper

  1. Fill your basin about halfway with water. The basin should be a little wider and longer than your frame and approximately the same shape.

    • If you're using the frame method, fill the basin and add the pulp before you dip the frame.
    • If you're using the pan method, put the screen in the bottom of the pan before you add the water and mix in the pulp.
  2. Add the pulp to the basin and stir. The amount of pulp you add to the water will determine the thickness of the paper, and while you want a dense suspension of pulp to fully cover your screen in the next steps, you don't need to make the whole tub into sludge. Experiment a bit. The thickness of can be changed from paper to cardboard depending on the amount of water added to the pulp.

  3. Remove any large clumps of paper. Try to pick out any clumps; the smoother and finer your mixture, the more uniform your end product will be.

  4. Seize the paper (optional). If the paper is going to be used for stationery, stir 2 teaspoons of liquid starch into the pulp mix. The starch helps prevent ink from soaking into the paper fibers.

    • If you don't add starch, the paper will be highly absorbent, and your ink will likely bleed quite easily. If this occurs, briefly soak the dried paper in a mix of water and gelatin and re-dry.
  5. Immerse the frame in the mixture (frame method only). Place your wooden frame into the pulp, screen-side down, then level it while it is submerged. Lightly move it side-to-side until the pulp on top of the screen lies fairly uniformly flat.

  6. Lift the screen from the basin. Slowly lift up the screen until it is above the water. Drip-drain it over the basin. Wait until most of the water has drained from the pulp, and you'll see the beginnings of a new piece of paper. If the paper is very thick, remove some of the pulp from the top. If it is too thin, add some more pulp and stir the mixture again.

  7. Remove excess water from the paper. After you've lifted the screen out of the basin, you'll need to remove the extra water from the pulp. Depending on the method you chose in Step 1, here's how to do it:

    • Frame method: After the water stops dripping (or nearly so), gently place a piece of fabric (felt or flannel, preferably) or a piece of Formica, (smooth-side down) in the frame on top of the "paper". Very gently press down to squeeze out excess water. Use a sponge to press out as much water as possible from the other side of the screen, and periodically wring out the sponge.
    • Pan method: Lay a cloth towel out on a flat surface, and put the screen (with the paper on it) on one half of the towel. Fold the other half over so that it's on top of the paper. With a clothes iron on low setting, gently iron over the towel. You should see a little steam from the paper coming up.

EditPart Four: Finalizing the Paper

  1. Remove the paper from the screen. Once the paper is a little more dry, you can lift it from the screen. You can gently press out any bubbles and loose edges at this point.

    • Gently lift the fabric or Formica out of the frame. The wet sheet of paper should remain on the fabric. If it sticks to the screen, you may have pulled too fast or not pressed out enough water.
    • You can press a drying sheet of paper by placing another piece of fabric or Formica on top of it and gently pressing. This will make the resulting paper smoother and thinner. Leave the second piece there as it dries.
  2. Peel the paper off the screen slowly. If you find that it's not coming off easily, try ironing it underneath the towel again.
    Make Paper Step 15 Version 4.jpg
  3. Set the paper out to dry. Take the piece of paper and lay it out to dry on a flat surface. Alternatively, you can speed up the drying process by using a hair dryer on the low setting.

    • Peel the paper off the fabric or Formica (frame method only). Wait until the sheets of paper are thoroughly dried; then gently peel.
    • Ironing (optional): When the paper is damp, but safe to move peel the fabric/Formica from the paper and then use an iron set on high to dry the paper quickly and give it a nice shine.
  4. Repeat the above steps to make additional sheets. Continue adding pulp and water to the basin as needed.
    Make Paper Step 18 Version 3.jpg


  • For a more artistic flair, you can also incorporate plant materials into your paper, such as shreds of flower petals, leaves, or green grass. The resulting beautiful effects will motivate you to make more - no two pieces are ever the same.
  • If you dry the paper on fabric, the paper may take on the color and texture of the material, so be careful what you use. Smooth Formica may be the best option if you want smooth writing paper.
  • Wax paper can be used instead of fabric or Formica.
  • To get excess water out you can put the cloth on top and press with a sponge - be gentle!
  • If you have trouble pulling the paper out of the frame, you may gently turn the frame upside down and try to pull it off the fabric or Formica.
  • You can add dryer lint to your slurry, but do not make your paper entirely from lint, as it will not have enough body on its own.
  • You can add a little bit of glitter to make your paper blink.

EditThings You'll Need

  • Any unwaxed paper (it cannot be glossy or shiny paper)
  • Wooden frame or aluminum pan
  • Window screen
  • Container
  • Blender or a mortar or pestle
  • Basin (if using wooden frame)
  • Water
  • 2 teaspoons liquid starch (optional)
  • Sponge (if using a wooden frame)
  • Towel (if using an aluminum pan)
  • Iron (optional for wooden frames)

EditRelated wikiHows

from How to of the Day http://ift.tt/vZEb3O
via Peter

Monday, 30 January 2017

How to Learn to Love Yourself

Sometimes life can get you down and you may be really hard on yourself. No matter what your are facing in your life, it is important to continue to love yourself. You can learn to love yourself by using strategies to become more compassionate towards yourself, let go of things that bother you about yourself, and develop a sincere love and appreciation for yourself.


EditBuilding Self-Compassion

  1. Imagine how you would react to a friend in your situation. To start practicing self-compassion, it may be helpful for you to start thinking about how you would respond to a friend who was in your situation. Try to imagine the words and behaviors that you would use to comfort a friend who was dealing with the same problem as you are and write about them. Some good questions to answer as part of this exercise include:[1]
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 1.jpg
    • What would you say to a friend who came to you with the problem that you are having? How would you treat him or her?
    • How do you tend to treat yourself? How is this different from how you would treat a friend?
    • How might a friend react if you treated him or her the way that you treat yourself?
    • How might you start to feel if you treated yourself the way you would treat a friend?
  2. Create a self-compassion script. In difficult moments, it may be helpful for you to recite a self-compassion script to keep yourself from being over-critical of yourself. A self-compassion script will help you to acknowledge your feelings and be kind to yourself in the moment.[2]
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 2.jpg
    • For example, you might say something like, “I am having a really hard time right now, but suffering is part of being human. The way I feel right now is temporary.”
    • You can alter the script so that it is in your own words or recite it as is whenever you are tempted to criticize yourself.
  3. Write a kind letter to yourself. Another way to start seeing yourself with more compassion is to write yourself a kind letter. Write the letter from the perspective of a friend who has unconditional love for you. You can imagine someone real or imaginary[3]
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 3.jpg
    • Try starting the letter with something like, “Dear (your name), I heard about (your situation) and I am so sorry. I want you to know that I care about you….” You can continue the letter from this point. Remember to maintain a kind, understanding tone throughout the entire letter.
  4. Give yourself some physical comfort. Physical comfort can help you to feel better when you are feeling low. That is why friends and family members may hug you or pat you on the back if you are struggling with something. Even if you are alone, you can give yourself the benefits of physical comfort by hugging, patting, or just laying hands on yourself.
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 4.jpg
    • Try holding your hands over your heart or wrap your arms around yourself in a big hug.[4]
  5. Practice meditation. After a while, self-critical thinking may become automatic, which can be difficult to change. Meditation can help you to become more aware of your thoughts, so you will be able to tell when you are criticizing yourself and address the thoughts rather than letting them take over.[5]
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 5.jpg
    • Learning to meditate takes time and practice, so it is a good idea to take a class or find someone who can give you lessons.
    • You can even try a self-compassion guided meditation: http://ift.tt/1WYr8gi

EditLetting Go of Self-Hatred

  1. Recognize opinions do not equal facts. How you feel about yourself may not be accurately be represented as fact. Do not believe everything you tell yourself.
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 6.jpg
    • To change negative thought patterns, try the cognitive behavioral technique “the 3 C’s”: catch, check, change. Catch yourself thinking something negative about yourself, check if what you are thinking about is true, and then change your thoughts to more positive one.[6]
  2. Avoid negative people. People who make you feel bad about yourself will make it more difficult to find self-love. If you find yourself surrounded by people like this, it is time to consider distancing yourself.[7]
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 7.jpg
    • It might be difficult to completely disappear or disengage from people. Start slow. If you want to distance yourself from friends, for example, try to communicate less. Gradually stop seeing or talking to them, and then block them on social media.
    • Breaking up with someone who is a negative influence can be a bit trickier. However, if you can handle it, then your life can be much better.
  3. Stay away from negative situations. Negative situations can create negative behavior and may create self-hatred.[8] Avoiding these situations will remove the stimuli and will help you focus on making a better you.
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 8.jpg
  4. Do not to dwell on things you can not change. For example, you can’t control the weather. Why let it upset you? When it comes to things about yourself, there are just some things you will not be able to control (such as past decisions). Focus on the things you can.
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 9.jpg
  5. Avoid thinking that you aren’t good enough. Feeling inadequate is very common. You must recognize that you cannot excel at every aspect of your life. Imperfection is part of the human condition. Recognize this to begin loving yourself and what you do accomplish.
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 10.jpg

EditDeveloping Self-Love

  1. Write a list. Start by writing down what you like about yourself.[9] This strategy will give a focus. Consider writing both physical and psychological lists. Start with small things to help motivate yourself. Perhaps write things:
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 12.jpg
    • I like the color of my eyes.
    • I like my laugh.
    • I enjoy my job.
    • I like my hard work ethic.
  2. Be thankful. Similarly, it helps to write a list for what you are thankful.[10] These can be vary from the previous list to focus more on what you appreciate about the world around you. Consider writing things:
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 13.jpg
    • I am thankful for my loving family.
    • I am thankful for my dog.
    • I am thankful for my apartment/house.
    • I am thankful for the wonderful weather today.
  3. Talk to those you love. If you are struggling with getting started with what you should write about, consider talking to people who love you. They might provide a different perspective. Think about asking:
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 14.jpg
    • ”Mom, what do you think are my best traits?”
    • ”Dad, what are you thankful for?” (This might give you ideas.)
    • ”[Sibling name] Do you think I’m good at [x]?”
  4. Practice daily affirmations.[11]Daily affirmations are scientifically proven to improve the way to think about yourself. They have been proven to improve mood and reduce stress. To practice daily affirmations, do the following:
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 15.jpg
    • Every morning, when you first wake up, stand in front of a mirror.
    • Look yourself in the eye and repeat a mantra. This affirmation is designed to help you reinforce positivity. Try saying things like: “I will say yes to more things today.”
    • Repeat this three to five times to help you reinforce the idea.
    • You can change your affirmation daily, or focus on something specific you want to change.
  5. Exercise. Getting physical has many positive benefits, both psychological and physical. The “exercise effect” is the scientific phenomenon of feeling better about oneself after physical exercise.[12]
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 16.jpg
    • Also, participating in exercises that you enjoy can promote happiness. For example, try taking a walk through a local park. It’ll give you time to think, burn off some calories, and provide a beautiful view!
  6. Eat a healthy diet. Similar to exercising, eating healthy has psychological benefits.[13]
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 17.jpg
    • Try eating more proteins (fish, meat, beans) and less simple carbohydrates (white bread, sugars, sweets, etc).
  7. Get plenty of sleep. Sleeping makes a body and mind feel good. Scientists suggest that amount of sleep varies on age.[14]
    Learn to Love Yourself Step 18.jpg
    • School age — nine to 11 hours per night.
    • Teenager — eight to 10 hours per night.
    • Young adult — seven to nine hours per night.
    • Adult — seven to nine hours per night.
    • Older Adult — six to eight hours per night.


  • If you are suffering from suicidal thoughts or are feeling sad the majority of the time, please consult your doctor. He can help you work through these feelings or refer to someone who can help.

EditRelated wikiHows

EditSources and Citation

  • Wegscheider-Cruse, S. (1987). Learning to love yourself: Finding your self-worth. Pompano Beach, FL: Health Communications.
  • Eastman, L. E. (2009). Learning to love yourself: Self-esteem for women. Prospect, KY: Professional Woman Pub.
  • Mitchell, M. (2015). Learning to love yourself. S.l.: Mari Mitchell.

Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found

from How to of the Day http://ift.tt/2jwFOn0
via Peter
$3 Per Year Web Hosting