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Sunday, 30 June 2019

How to Season Turkey Burgers

Substituting poultry without the skin for red meat is good way to reduce the amount of saturated fat in your meal and can be part of a heart-healthy diet. [1] For example, you can use ground turkey in place of ground beef when making burgers. Keep in mind that because turkey has less fat than beef, an unseasoned turkey burger will be bland and dry. Season your turkey burgers with dry seasonings or additional ingredients for a delicious, juicy burger.


EditUsing Dry Seasonings to Add Flavor

  1. Mix cumin with turkey before forming patties for a smoky flavor. Cumin works well with Mexican, North African, Indian, and Middle Eastern flavor profiles.[2] Use 1 teaspoon (2.5 grams) dried cumin for of ground turkey.[3]
    Season Turkey Burgers Step 1.jpg
  2. Combine chili powder with turkey before forming patties to add heat. Chili powder pairs best with Latin American flavors. Mix ½ teaspoon (1.5 grams) chili powder with of ground turkey.[4]
    Season Turkey Burgers Step 2.jpg
    • Chile powder is a blend of spices including ancho chile powder, paprika, cumin, and Mexican oregano.[5]
  3. Mix thyme into turkey before forming patties for a bright taste. Turkey’s neutral taste means that it can allow other flavors to shine, and thyme pairs well with a Mediterranean flavor profile. Use 1 teaspoon (1.5 grams) of dried thyme for of ground turkey.[6]
    Season Turkey Burgers Step 3.jpg
  4. Add salt and pepper to turkey before forming patties. A simple seasoning of salt and pepper works with any flavor profile and is the best choice if you want the burger toppings to be the focus. Use ½ teaspoon (3 grams) and ½ teaspoon of pepper (1 gram) for of ground turkey.[7]
    Season Turkey Burgers Step 4.jpg
    • Use seasoning salt or lemon pepper for extra flavor.[8]

EditAdding Other Foods to Improve Flavor and Texture

  1. Mix eggplant with turkey before preparing patties for a meaty flavor. To prepare the eggplant, roast it at for 30 minutes. Allow to cool and scrape the flesh from the skin, and then chop finely to make a puree.[9]
    Season Turkey Burgers Step 5.jpg
    • Use one small eggplant, about , for each of turkey.[10]
  2. Mix ricotta cheese with turkey before forming patties. Ricotta cheese will add a mild flavor and moisture without a lot of extra fat.[11] Use ½ cup (124 grams) whole-milk ricotta cheese for of ground turkey.[12]
    Season Turkey Burgers Step 6.jpg
  3. Combine ketchup and turkey before forming patties for a classic flavor. This works best if you are planning to add toppings like onions, lettuce, mustard, and more ketchup. Use 2 tablespoons (34 grams) of ketchup for of ground turkey.[13]
    Season Turkey Burgers Step 7.jpg
  4. Mix Dijon mustard with turkey before forming patties for a bold flavor. Since Dijon is sharper and spicier than yellow mustard, its flavor will hold up better when cooked.[14]. Use 1 tablespoon (18 grams) mustard for of ground turkey.[15]
    Season Turkey Burgers Step 8.jpg
  5. Add onion to turkey before forming patties for a diner-style burger. This is best if you’re planning to serve the burgers with toppings like ketchup, mustard, and pickles. For of ground turkey, grate half of a medium onion.[16]
    Season Turkey Burgers Step 9.jpg
  6. Mix shredded cheese with turkey before forming patties. The pockets of cheese in the burger patty give it a juicier interior and a crunchy crust. Use of a mild cheese like Monterey Jack per of ground turkey.[17]
    Season Turkey Burgers Step 10.jpg
    • For a bolder, cheese-forward burger, try stronger cheeses like sharp cheddar and pepper jack.
    • When choosing a cheese, consider what toppings you will be adding to the burger. For example, cheddar would pair well with classic cheeseburger toppings like lettuce and tomato.

EditUsing Different Cooking Techniques to Create Additional Flavor

  1. Sear the burgers to make a flavorful crust. This will also give you a crisp exterior texture. Burgers can be cooked in a skillet on medium-high heat until a crust forms on the bottom, about 3 minutes, and then baked at for 5 to 7 minutes.[18]
    Season Turkey Burgers Step 11.jpg
    • Use a cast iron or oven-safe skillet.[19]
    • Only handle the burgers when flipping in order to keep them from drying out.[20]
  2. Grill the burgers for a smoky taste. Using a charcoal grill will give you the best flavor. Cook over medium-high heat for 3 to 4 minutes per side. [21]
    Season Turkey Burgers Step 12.jpg
    • Don’t press the burgers down, because you’ll lose the juices and end up with a drier burger.[22]
  3. Cook the burgers over a campfire to add complex flavors. Different types of wood will add different taste notes. For example, apple wood gives meat a light, sweet flavor and hickory adds a hearty taste.[23]
    Season Turkey Burgers Step 13.jpg
    • To efficiently cook several burgers at once, use a hinged grill basket. They can be purchased online or from a local outdoors supply store.[24]


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How to Use Activated Charcoal for Teeth Whitening

You may have seen activated charcoal touted as the way to get a bright set of pearly whites – and there are a lot of toothpaste and natural health companies jumping on the bandwagon with activated charcoal toothpastes and whitening pastes. The traditional way to use activated charcoal for teeth whitening is to crush a charcoal tablet in water to form a paste you rub or brush on your teeth. Before you take the leap, be aware that the American Dental Association (ADA) warns that activated charcoal may damage the enamel of your teeth if used incorrectly, leading to increased tooth sensitivity.[1]


EditChoosing an Appropriate Product

  1. Consult your dentist for recommendations and advice. Before you start using activated charcoal, schedule an appointment with your dentist. Let them know that you're interested in using activated charcoal to whiten your teeth. They may have products they can recommend.[2]
    Use Activated Charcoal for Teeth Whitening Step 1.jpg
    • Your dentist can also properly evaluate your oral health and let you know if activated charcoal could possibly harm your teeth or gums.
  2. Try a toothpaste with activated charcoal added first. An activated charcoal toothpaste will be less abrasive than an activated charcoal paste, as well as easier to clean off your teeth. If you've never tried activated charcoal before, you may want to start with a toothpaste first.[3]
    Use Activated Charcoal for Teeth Whitening Step 2.jpg
    • While activated charcoal may be good at removing surface stains, toothpastes are largely ineffective at whitening your teeth because they don't stay in contact with your teeth long enough. However, if you smoke or drink coffee, your teeth may seem whiter after using an activated charcoal toothpaste.[4]
  3. Make your own paste with tablets if you have healthy teeth and gums. Making your own activated charcoal paste is typically less expensive than pre-made branded products. Additionally, you avoid other ingredients in pre-made products that may lessen the effectiveness of the activated charcoal.[5]
    Use Activated Charcoal for Teeth Whitening Step 3.jpg
    • Activated charcoal tablets are available online and at some natural food or health and beauty stores. Activated charcoal is also available in capsule form. You would need to break open the capsule to use the charcoal on your teeth.
    • Read the information on the package carefully and make sure the tablets you buy are okay to use in your mouth.
    • Although paste made with tablets is typically more abrasive than branded activated charcoal products, you can control the abrasiveness depending on how finely you crush up the charcoal.

EditUsing Activated Charcoal Properly

  1. Crush a tablet of activated charcoal into a cup or bowl. Take a single tablet of activated charcoal out of the bottle and drop it into a small cup or bowl. You may want to use the back of a spoon to crush it up a little bit.[6]
    Use Activated Charcoal for Teeth Whitening Step 4.jpg
    • The finer the consistency of the activated charcoal, the less abrasive your paste will be. Try not to leave any large or jagged pieces of charcoal, as these could damage your teeth or gums.
  2. Pour about 1 teaspoon (5 mL) of water over the charcoal to form a paste. Once you've sufficiently crushed up the activated charcoal tablet, mix it with water to until it has a consistent paste-like consistency.[7]
    Use Activated Charcoal for Teeth Whitening Step 5.jpg
    • Adding more water and crushing the charcoal more will make your paste less abrasive. However, you should only add a few drops of water at a time. If the paste becomes too watery, it won't adhere to your teeth.
  3. Apply the paste to your teeth with a soft-bristled toothbrush. Dip a soft toothbrush into the paste and brush it gently on the exposed surfaces of your teeth. Use light pressure to keep from scrubbing too hard – you might damage your teeth's enamel.[8]
    Use Activated Charcoal for Teeth Whitening Step 6.jpg
    • Be sure to use a different toothbrush than the one you regularly use to brush your teeth – small bits of charcoal will get trapped in the bristles, and the bristles themselves will become stained.
    • Get a toothbrush with the softest bristles you can find to minimize the abrasiveness. You might try a child's toothbrush, which typically has softer bristles than an adult toothbrush.
  4. Leave the paste on your teeth for 3 minutes, then rinse. Once you've covered your teeth in the activated charcoal paste, wait for 3 minutes to allow the charcoal to do its work. Rinse your mouth with cool water repeatedly until you are no longer spitting any charcoal fragments.[9]
    Use Activated Charcoal for Teeth Whitening Step 7.jpg
    • After rinsing with water, you may want to follow up with a regular mouth rinse so your mouth doesn't taste like charcoal.
    • When you first start, you may have a hard time leaving the activated charcoal in your mouth for 3 minutes. Start with 1 minute and work your way up.
  5. Brush and floss like normal after using activated charcoal. Using activated charcoal is not the same as brushing and flossing your teeth, and doesn't take the place of regular dental hygiene. Even while using activated charcoal, follow a normal routine of brushing your teeth at least twice a day.[10]
    Use Activated Charcoal for Teeth Whitening Step 8.jpg
    • Monitor your teeth and gums carefully when you brush your teeth after using activated charcoal. Discontinue your activated charcoal treatments if you notice your gums bleeding, or if your teeth feel rough or more sensitive than usual.
  6. Treat your teeth with activated charcoal at most once every 2 weeks. Activated charcoal is abrasive, and repeated treatments will damage your enamel. Once you lose enamel there's no way to get it back. Using activated charcoal sparingly minimizes cumulative damage.[11]
    Use Activated Charcoal for Teeth Whitening Step 9.jpg
    • The primary benefit of activated charcoal is the removal of surface stains from your teeth. Waiting a couple of weeks will allow a buildup of stains so the charcoal doesn't start eating away at your enamel.

EditExploring Whitening Alternatives

  1. Make your own whitening toothpaste with natural ingredients. A mixture of baking soda and hydrogen peroxide is actually proven to whiten your teeth. Dip your toothbrush in hydrogen peroxide, then dip it in baking soda. Brush your teeth for 2 minutes, then rinse well.[12]
    Use Activated Charcoal for Teeth Whitening Step 10.jpg
    • While baking soda is less abrasive than activated charcoal, it's still abrasive. Use this treatment no more than 2 or 3 times a week, and don't use it as a substitute for regular brushing and flossing.
  2. Drink water with dark foods and drinks to minimize staining. Coffee, red wine, pomegranates, and other dark foods and drinks are known to stain your teeth. If you drink water while eating or drinking, the water helps to rinse the stains away, keeping your mouth clean.[13]
    Use Activated Charcoal for Teeth Whitening Step 11.jpg
    • Smoking can also stain your teeth. If you're a smoker, consider cutting back or making a plan to quit if you want a whiter smile. In the meantime, consider using a smoker's toothpaste that is designed to fight tobacco stains.
  3. Eat foods that help keep your teeth clean. The types of food that you eat can help naturally brighten your smile without having to resort to harsh treatments. Fill up on crunchy raw foods that naturally brush the surface of your teeth, such as celery and apples.[14]
    Use Activated Charcoal for Teeth Whitening Step 12.jpg
    • These foods also help remove bacteria from your mouth and teeth, which can help prevent cavities and gum disease.
  4. Try oil pulling to remove bacteria from your teeth. Swish 1 tablespoon (15 mL) of coconut, sunflower, or sesame oil for 1 minute after brushing and flossing. Rinse your mouth out thoroughly after spitting out the oil.[15]
    Use Activated Charcoal for Teeth Whitening Step 13.jpg
    • Oil pulling is an ancient treatment that may help remove surface stains from your teeth to give you a brighter smile.
    • There aren't any scientific studies that prove oil pulling is actually beneficial for your oral health or will help whiten your teeth. Although oil pulling isn't abrasive and won't harm the enamel of your teeth, you should still consult your dentist before trying this treatment.
  5. Talk to your dentist about in-office whitening treatments. Whitening treatments at your dentist's office are the only guaranteed way to get a whiter smile. There are a number of different methods available, some of which may even be covered by your dental insurance.[16]
    Use Activated Charcoal for Teeth Whitening Step 14.jpg
    • Your dentist will also be able to talk to you about why your teeth are discolored. Some discoloration is genetic, and no whitening treatments will help.


  • Activated charcoal may damage any fillings, crowns, or other dental work. If you've had damaged or broken teeth repaired, talk to your dentist before trying activated charcoal toothpaste or tablets.
  • Do not attempt to use activated charcoal to whiten your teeth if you have gum disease, or if your gums typically bleed when you brush your teeth normally.
  • Consult your dentist before trying any at-home whitening methods to be sure that the method is safe for your teeth.

EditThings You'll Need

EditUsing Activated Charcoal Properly

  • Activated charcoal tablets
  • Bowl or cup
  • Water
  • Soft-bristled toothbrush

EditExploring Whitening Alternatives

  • Baking soda
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Coconut, sunflower, or sesame oil


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How to Make an Origami Pikachu

Pikachu is easily the most recognizable character from Pokemon. Use origami paper to create your own Pikachu that you can carry with you everywhere. Make sure to use yellow origami paper to give your Pikachu its signature color, then use black and red markers to draw on the face and other details.


EditFolding an Easy Origami Pikachu

  1. Place a square piece of origami paper flat and rotate it like a diamond. Use yellow origami paper to create an authentic-looking Pikachu. Place the paper on a flat surface in front of you with the colored side down.[1]

    • You can make a square out of normal white printer paper if you don’t have origami paper. Color it yellow before you start folding it to make it Pikachu’s color.
  2. Fold the origami paper in half left to right, then unfold it. Fold the left corner over the right corner and crease the middle. Unfold it into a diamond again so you can see the crease in the middle.[2]

    • The crease will help guide your next folds to make your Pikachu.
  3. Fold the bottom half of the paper up to the top. Take the bottom corner and fold it up over the top corner. You will now have a yellow triangle with the top point facing away from you.[3]

    • Make sure you can still see the crease in the middle to guide your next fold.
  4. Fold the top of the triangle down to the bottom edge. Take both layers of the top point of the triangle and fold it down so the tip touches the bottom edge. Make sure the tip is lined up with the crease in the middle of the triangle.[4]

    • The origami should now look like a triangle with the top third of it cut off.
  5. Fold the sides up diagonally towards the center. Fold the left side up so that it creates half of a diamond. Do the same for the right side so you have a diamond with a space down the center.[5]

    • Use the part of the triangle that you folded down as a guide for folding the sides up diagonally.
  6. Fold the left and right corners in to the center. Fold the corners in at each side like a paper airplane. This will create Pikachu’s ears that you will fold out next.[6]

    • You should have a diamond shape in front of you that is long and narrow at the top, and short and wide at the bottom.
  7. Fold the ears out to the left and right at whatever angle you want. Fold the left and right ears out at different angles to give your Pikachu some personality. Fold them at the same angle if you want your Pikachu to look symmetrical.[7]

    • Look at how Pikachu’s ears are in different Pokemon scenes or artwork for inspiration.
  8. Fold in the pointy cheeks and chin of your Pikachu’s face. Fold the bottom point up to flatten the chin. Fold the left and right points in to flatten the cheeks.[8]

    • Try to keep the folds symmetrical so that you create an evenly rounded face for Pikachu.
  9. Flip the origami over and draw on Pikachu’s face. Use a black marker to draw the eyes, ears, nose, and the outline of the mouth. Use a red marker to draw the cheeks and color in the mouth.[9]
    Make an Origami Pikachu Step 9.jpg
    • You can draw many styles of Pikachu's face on your origami Pikachu. Make Pikachu happy, mad, or even sad! Try making a bunch of these easy origami Pikachus for every mood.

EditMaking an Origami Pikachu Cube

  1. Start with a piece of origami paper flat with the colored side facing you. Place a piece of yellow origami paper on a flat surface in front of you. Align it like a normal square.[10]
    Make an Origami Pikachu Step 10.jpg
    • Use a square of normal paper colored yellow if you don’t have origami paper.
  2. Fold the paper in half along both diagonals and horizontally. Fold the top half down over the bottom half and unfold it. Do the same for both diagonal directions.[11]

    • You should now have a square in front of you with a horizontal crease and 2 diagonal creases.
  3. Fold the paper inwards along the diagonal creases on the bottom half. Flatten the paper along the creases so you have a triangle with a vertical piece of paper sticking up into the air. Flatten the vertical piece next so that you have 2 triangles.[12]

    • It should now look like 2 triangles, 1 on top of the other, with the top point facing away from you and the flat edge closest to you.
  4. Fold the 2 sides of each triangle up so they meet in the middle. Fold the left and right corners of the top triangle upwards towards the point of the triangle. Flip the paper over and repeat this for the bottom triangle.[13]

    • You should now have a diamond shape in front of you that has a vertical space running down the middle.
  5. Fold the side flaps in to the middle on each side. Fold the left and right points in so that they meet in the middle where the vertical space is. Flip the paper over and repeat this.[14]

    • You will now have a diamond shape with flat sides.
    • Fold the top flaps down. Fold the left and right top flaps down in half and slide the tips into the little pockets. Flip over the paper and repeat this for the other side.
  6. Tuck the folded top flaps into the little pockets on each side. Start with the side facing you and tuck the top flaps you folded down into the little pockets that are there. Do the same for the other side.

    • This will keep all the top flaps in place once you inflate Pikachu.
  7. Fold the remaining set of top flaps down and to the side to make the ears. Fold the left and right top flaps down and out to the left and right. You will now have what looks like a flattened Pikachu.[15]

    • The top half should look like a triangle, with the ears as the left and right sides of the triangle. The bottom half should look like a square with a pointy bottom.
  8. Blow in the tiny hole at the bottom of the origami to inflate it. Pick up the folded origami and look for the tiny hole at the bottom. Blow into it several times until it inflates.[16]

    • You should now have a cube with 2 ears.
  9. Draw Pikachu’s face on with markers. Use a black marker to color the tips of the ears and draw on the eyes, nose, and mouth. Use a red marker to make the cheeks and a tongue if you want.[17]
    Make an Origami Pikachu Step 18.jpg
    • Perk up the ears to give your Pikachu some character.

EditThings You’ll Need

  • Yellow origami paper
  • Red and black markers


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Saturday, 29 June 2019

How to Stop Panicking

Having a panic attack—or any type of panic in general—can feel terrifying and overwhelming. Fortunately, there are no short- or long-term medical risks associated with panic. To stop panic attacks, try to slow down your breathing and distract yourself by focusing on your physical environment. With time, you can learn several techniques that will help you keep panic attacks under control and make them less severe. If you experience frequent or severe panic attacks, visit a psychiatrist and discuss possible forms of therapy to help stop the attacks.[1]


EditStopping a Panic Attack

  1. Slow down your breathing to lower your heart rate. Fast paced breathing (called hyperventilation) and panic are linked. If you find yourself panicking, try to take deep, slow breaths instead of shallow, fast ones. Aim to completely fill your lungs with air each time you take a breath. Inhale for 2–3 seconds, hold the breath for 5 seconds, and slowly exhale for another 2–3 seconds. This will help you calm down and start to think more clearly.[2]
    Stop Panicking Step 1.jpg
    • When people hyperventilate during a panic attack, they lower the amount of carbon dioxide in their bloodstream. Studies have shown a link between low carbon dioxide and feelings of dizziness and panic.
  2. Count backwards from 100 by 3s to distract yourself. Counting backward by 1s or 2s would be too easy and not distract your mind enough to end the panic attack. Counting by 3s will force your mind to focus on something other than its panicked state and should bring the attack to a close by the time you’ve reached 1.[3]
    Stop Panicking Step 2.jpg
    • If you find that counting in your mind isn’t enough to stave off a panic attack, try writing down the numbers or, if you’re alone, saying them out loud.
  3. Add up the loose change in your pocket if you carry change. This is a great way to focus your mind on an objective, external situation and distract yourself from the panic attack. Reach into your pocket or purse and, without pulling them out to look, count up the coins that you’re touching.[4]
    Stop Panicking Step 3.jpg
    • If you don’t carry loose change, try imagining coins in different combinations and tallying the totals.
    • Add up, for example, 3 quarters, 18 dimes, 7 nickels, and 22 pennies.
  4. Don’t talk through your feelings or have a conversation during an attack. Many people find that conversation in general during a panic attack makes it worse. If this is true for you, let people close to you know. It may seem logical that having a frank discussion about mental health will help you think your way out of the panic attack. However, this rarely works, and discussions are best left for after the attack has gone.[5]
    Stop Panicking Step 4.jpg
    • Tell friends and family members something like, “If you see me having a panic attack, please don’t ask how I’m doing. That only makes it worse.”
  5. Apply ice packs to your back and hands when you panic at home. Keep 3–4 ice packs in your freezer and, when you experience a panic attack, place 1 or 2 large ice packs over a towel draped across your lower back. Then hold 1 ice pack in each hand. The ice will cool your body down and allow you to focus on a physical sensation. This should distract you from your panic attack.[6]
    Stop Panicking Step 5.jpg
    • You could also try rubbing an ice pack over the front of your body, from your sternum to your lower abdomen. Keep a thin t-shirt on so you won't rub the ice pack directly against your skin.
    • While this approach may not work for everyone, it’s worth a shot.

EditPreventing Panicking Episodes

  1. Focus on things outside of yourself to distract your mind. If you feel panic coming on, look around and notice things about your environment. This will distract you and should put off the panic attack. Look around and note 1 thing you can taste, 2 you can smell, 3 you can touch, and 4 things you can see.[7]
    Stop Panicking Step 6.jpg
    • If you’re in an office, for example, take a look through your environment. Tasting coffee, smelling someone’s perfume, seeing a clock on the wall, and touching the floor will help distract you and reorient your attention.
  2. Remove yourself from stressors that cause you to panic. Preventing a panic attack can be as straightforward as getting yourself out of a situation that you know will cause you to panic. So, try to avoid locations and encounters that you know will cause you to feel anxiety and panic. Stay away from panic-inducing triggers whenever it's within your control.[8]
    Stop Panicking Step 7.jpg
    • For example, if you know that you panic when you're exposed to heights, avoid visiting your friend in their top-floor penthouse.
    • Or, if you panic when other people crowd themselves around you, don't take the subway as part of your daily commute.
  3. Engage in calming or relaxing activities at least 2–3 times a week. Stress builds up over time and can lead to an increase in panic attacks. To keep yourself calm and panic-free, spend 3–4 hours weekly engaging in activities that relieve stress and promote a calm, relaxed state of mind. This will prevent panic attacks. Relaxing and meditative activities include things like:[9]
    Stop Panicking Step 8.jpg
  4. Exercise for at least 30 minutes a day to relieve pent-up anxiety. Much like yoga or meditation, regular exercise can decrease stress and prevent panic attacks. It can also raise your overall energy level and boost your mood. The exercise can be done all at 1 time or broken up into, for example, 3 separate 10-minute exercise sessions a day.[10] To exercise for 30 minutes a day, try things like:
    Stop Panicking Step 9.jpg
    • Taking a walk outdoors
    • Jogging through a nearby park
    • Swimming at a local rec center pool
    • Jumping rope or running on a treadmill at your gym

EditTreating Panic Disorders

  1. Try CBT to change thought patterns that are related to panic attacks. Cognitive behavioral therapy—or CBT—helps individuals with a panic disorder by letting them think through the environmental and psychological causes of panic attacks. Work with a local therapist to see if CBT helps your panic disorder. In many cases, a few therapy sessions are enough to permanently stop or decrease your panic attacks.[11]
    Stop Panicking Step 10.jpg
    • For example, say that you’ve afraid of experiencing a panic attack while driving. Your therapist will talk you through the hypothetical scenario and help you realize that, while it may sound scary, the situation wouldn’t be particularly dangerous or life-threatening.
  2. Use exposure therapy if specific stressors trigger your panic attacks. A therapist or psychiatrist can help you use exposure therapy to overcome your panic-inducing fear of certain activities or situations. Similarly to treating someone with a phobia, exposure therapy will expose you to panic-inducing stressors in small increments. With time, the stressors will stop causing panic attacks.[12]
    Stop Panicking Step 11.jpg
    • For example, if you often have a panic attack when your heart is racing, the therapist may ask you to run in place for 10 minutes to raise your heart rate.
  3. Ask a therapist about medication if you have frequent panic attacks. While medications can stop panic attacks and combat anxiety, they don’t treat the underlying issue. However, if you have frequent, severe panic attacks and your counselor or a psychiatrist thinks medication will help, they can provide you with a prescription for an anti-panic medication.[13]
    Stop Panicking Step 12.jpg
    • Always take the medication as directed, and never exceed the prescribed daily dosage.
    • To prevent panic attacks, doctors may prescribe antidepressants (which need to be taken daily) or anti-anxiety drugs like Benzodiazepines.
  4. Don’t let the fear of panicking control your life. Many people who suffer from panic attacks find them scary and unpredictable. As a result, people can shut themselves in their homes to avoid the perceived embarrassment of a public panic attack.[14] Avoid this outcome by reminding yourself that you can control panic attacks, and that having one isn’t the end of the world. Then, go about your life as usual.
    Stop Panicking Step 13.jpg
    • Try telling yourself, “A panic attack isn’t the end of the world. I know how to stop them, and they can’t hurt me. Many people have them.”


  • Wear sunglasses if you find that your panic attacks are triggered—or worsened—by bright lights.[15]


  • Benzodiazepines are a highly addictive type of medication. They can also cause dangerous withdrawal symptoms if abused. Talk to your doctor before taking these meds to make sure you know how to take them safely.[16]


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How to Play Poker

Poker is a popular game that’s easy to learn but difficult to master. Although it’s a card game, poker is also a game of strategy, and you'll need to constantly read the other players to decide when to fold, when to bluff, and when to call someone else’s bluff. There are many variations of poker, but Texas Hold’em is the most popular. While each variation has its own rules, the basics of the game are always the same. All you have to do is master the basics - then you can start developing your own winning strategy!


EditPoker Help

EditPlaying a Round of Texas Hold'em

  1. Learn the 10 basic 5-card hands and their ranking. No matter what type of poker you play, the hands will always be the same. To start familiarizing yourself with the different hands, print out a "cheat sheet" and study it. Then, memorize the different hands so you can easily recognize them. Here are the winning poker hands, from highest to lowest:
    Play Poker Step 1 Version 6.jpg
    • The highest-ranking hand is a royal flush (the royal straight flush). This hand includes a 10, Jack, Queen, King, and Ace of the same suit, one kind (all clubs, diamonds, hearts or spades). It can only be tied but not beaten by the royal flush of another suit.
    • A straight flush is made up of 5 consecutive cards of the same suit.
    • 4 of a kind means you have 4 cards of the same rank (but different suits, of course) and a fifth card of any rank (such as 4 aces and a 9). If you have 4 aces, then no one can have any hand with an ace, so that no royal flush is available.
    • A full house contains 3 matching cards of 1 rank and 2 matching cards of another rank.
    • A flush contains any 5 cards of the same suit. These skip around in rank or sequence, but are from the same suit.
    • A straight contains 5 cards of consecutive rank but from more than one suit.
    • 3 of a kind means you have 3 cards of the same rank, plus two unmatched cards.
    • 2 pair is made up of two cards of one rank, plus two cards of another rank (different from the first pair), plus one unmatched card.
    • Pair means you have 2 cards of the same rank, plus 3 other unmatched cards.
    • High card is the lowest-ranking (called a "nothing") hand, when no two cards have the same rank, the five cards are not consecutive, and they are not all from the same suit.
  2. Place the blinds (starting bets) or "ante up." In poker, bets are placed at the beginning of the game in one of 2 ways. In Texas Hold’em, the player next to the dealer typically places a small blind bet that’s half of the usual minimum bet, while the player to that person’s left places a big blind that’s at least the minimum bet. As another option, each player can “ante up” the minimum starting bet, which means placing a minimum starting bet into the pool.[1]
    Play Poker Step 2 Version 3.jpg
    • Aside from Texas Hold’em, most poker variants use an “ante up” system.
  3. Look at the 2 cards the dealer gives you, which is your hand. The dealer will "burn" the first card on the deck, which means placing it out of play. Then, they'll pass out 2 cards to each player. Check your cards to see what you're holding.[2]
    Play Poker Step 4 Version 2.jpg
    • In poker, the dealer will burn a card every round of dealing. That way, it’s harder for players to anticipate what card is coming up and the game becomes more of a gamble.
    • The dealer will always pass out the cards in a clockwise direction, starting on the left.
  4. Bet, call, or raise after each round is dealt, if you want to. Every time the dealer puts out new cards, you'll make a bet, with the first bet being made solely based on the two cards the players have in their hands. Betting happens in a circle – when it's your turn to bet, you have a few options. At this point you can:[3]
    Play Poker Step 4 Version 3.jpg
    • Place an initial bet if no one else has yet.
    • Say "check" to avoid betting.
    • Say "call" to match the bet someone else has made.
    • Say "raise" to add more money to the betting pool. If you "raise," the other players will go around in a circle and choose to either "call" your new bet or fold.
    • Say "fold" if someone else has bet and you don't want to match their bet. If you fold, turn your cards into the dealer face-down to avoid giving the other players any advantages!
  5. Look at the “flop” to see if you have a good hand. After the first round of betting, the dealer will "burn" the top card on the deck. Then, they'll put 3 cards face up on the table, which is called the "flop." These are the community cards that every player can use to build their hand. Compare these cards and the cards in your hand, then place a bet, call a bet, or fold.[4]
    Play Poker Step 5 Version 3.jpg
    • In total, the dealer will reveal 5 cards. You will have 7 cards total to use to create your best hand of 5: your two personal cards in your hands, and the five community cards on the table. While your luck can turn later on in a game, take some time to analyze the table after the "flop" – are you well positioned to end the game with a good hand?
    • Depending on the rules where you’re playing, you can also draw replacement cards for the cards in your hand, if you like. This is usually done during or just after the betting round.
  6. Check the “turn” card after the second round of betting. The dealer will "burn" the top card, then they'll place 1 card face up next to the flop. This is called the “turn” card or the “fourth street” card. Check all of the cards on the table and the cards in your hand to see if you want to bet, call, or raise.[5]
    Play Poker Step 6 Version 3.jpg
    • Your game may also allow a card exchange at this point, but this isn’t typical in professional games.
    • As you look at the cards, think about the possible hands other players might have. For instance, if all 4 cards on the table are spades, then any player who has a spade in their hand will have a flush, which means they have 5 cards from the same house.
    • Similarly, if the cards on the table are 5,6,7, and 8, then anyone with a 4 or 9 will have a straight.
    • If you have nothing good in your hand but the cards on the table make for an easy winning hand, then you may want to fold, as it’s likely another player has a winning card.
  7. Examine the "river" card and decide on the hand you'll play. After the dealer "burns" the top card on the deck, they'll put 1 last card face up next to the “turn” card. This final card is called the “river.” Check your hand and the community cards to decide on your best 5-card hand. Then, bet, call, or fold.[6]
    Play Poker Step 7 Version 3.jpg
    • If the rules allow it, you may be able to exchange your hand 1 final time before or after betting. However, this isn’t common in professional games.
  8. Reveal each player’s hand clockwise in the final “showdown.” After each player calls, folds, or bets in the last round, each remaining player will participate in the “showdown.” Starting to the left of the dealer, each player will reveal their cards face up. Then, everyone looks at the turned over hands to see who has the highest value hand to win the entire pot.[7]
    Play Poker Step 19.jpg
    • If there is a tie, the tied players split the pot.
    • If you fold your hand, then you don’t have to show your cards.
    • In Texas Hold’em, there are 5 cards on the table and 2 cards in your hand. You can create any 5-card combination using these 7 cards. The remaining cards aren’t counted.
    • If you want to play the cards on the table only, this is called “playing the board.” However, it’s an option that everyone has, so it may not be the best strategy.

EditAdding Betting and Strategy

  1. Guesstimate the risks on your starting hand. Look at your cards to see what you’re holding. Check for a pair, 2 consecutive numbers, cards that are from the same house, or face cards, which may be good cards. Then, decide if it’s worth placing a bet to see what the community cards will be.
    Play Poker Step 6 Version 2.jpg
    • You should almost always raise when your hand is a pair, face cards, or aces. An ace and a king or an ace and a queen are strong hands as well. If you have these hands, bet before the flop to raise the value of the pot.
    • If the card you need doesn’t turn up, you can either bluff or fold. Sometimes, with good bluffing skills and some luck, a bad hand can win the whole game.
  2. Start the bidding with the player to the left of the big blind or dealer. On the first round, bidding starts to the left of the big blind. In later rounds, the bidding starts to the left of the dealer. From there, the bidding goes clockwise.[8]
    Play Poker Step 2 Version 2.jpg
    • If you’re playing a game with an ante instead of a blind, always start betting with the player to the left of the dealer.
  3. Call the bet if you want to stay in but don’t have great cards. This means you want to stay in the game but don’t want to raise the bet. When you call, match the bet of the person before you by adding your chips or money to the pot. Your turn is now over.[9]
    Play Poker Step 7 Version 2.jpg
    • If the flop comes and you’re holding a hand that doesn’t play, check and fold. You don’t want to keep betting money at a hand that won’t win.
    • If the flop comes and you have a strong hand, bet at it. This will force weaker hands out and raise the value of your pot.
  4. Raise the bet if you have a good hand. When the bet comes to you, tell the other players you want to raise. Then, say how much you are betting and place your money or chips into the pot. This ends your turn.[10]
    Play Poker Step 12 Version 2.jpg
    • Say, “I raise the bet to $30.”
    • You can’t raise the bet above the maximum for your game.
  5. Fold if the current bet is too high or you have a bad hand. This means quitting the round of poker. To fold, place your cards face down on the table and say, “I fold.” Then, add your cards to the discard pile.[11]
    Play Poker Step 8 Version 2.jpg
    • Don’t show your cards when you fold during a game, as this can spoil which cards are out of play. That may give certain players an upper hand.
    • The key to being successful at poker is knowing when to fold your hand and accept a smaller loss or when to hold onto it and risk a larger loss for a chance to win the pot.
  6. Decide if you want to draw any cards (if the game allows it). Look at your cards and decide if you want to play this hand. If you’d like to try for better cards, discard the cards you don’t want. Then, draw replacement cards from the draw pile at the center of the table. [12]
    Play Poker Step 9.jpg
    • You can discard as many cards as you’d like.
    • You may not be allowed to draw new cards when playing Texas Hold’em, so check the rules for your game before you start playing.
  7. Play only with money you’re willing to lose. When you are learning, you should never gamble more than you would consider acceptable to lose. During the game, don’t add to your bankroll or dive back in after losing everything you planned to gamble. Wait until you’re comfortable losing that amount again before you play another game.
    Play Poker Step 11.jpg
    • The general rule of thumb is you should be able to easily afford to lose 200 bets at the highest limit. So if the limit is $5 bets, then your bankroll should be $1000, and stop there.
    • Track your wins and losses if you start getting more serious about poker. This will help you figure out whether you are winning or losing in the long run.
    • Remember that you must keep records and pay taxes on your gambling income to avoid legal trouble.
  8. Learn to read basic tells. Playing your opponents is arguably even more important than playing your cards in poker. This is a more advanced aspect of the game, but it’s always good to be aware of players’ tells—especially your own. Watch for betting patterns such as betting early, very often (probably with weak hands), or late in a hand (as intimidation). Physical tells can also give you an estimation of your opponent’s strength of hand and help you keep your own strategy secret by avoiding such patterns.[13]
    Play Poker Step 12.jpg
    • Some classic tells include shallow breathing, sighing, nostrils flaring, flushing red, eyes watering, blinking, swallowing excessively, or an increasing pulse seen in the neck or temple.
    • A hand over the mouth is usually to conceal a smile, while shaking hands usually reveal nerves.
    • If a player glances at his or her chips when the flop comes, they probably have a strong hand.
    • If a mediocre player tries to impress you by staring you down, they are likely bluffing.
  9. Identify conservative players from aggressive players. This will help you determine players' betting patterns and read them more easily. You can tell if players are more conservative by noticing those folding early—evidently only staying in a hand when their cards are good.
    Play Poker Step 13.jpg
    • Very conservative players won’t lose as much money, but they're easily spotted by more experienced players. Because they tend to avoid high betting, they can often be bluffed into folding.
    • Aggressive players are risk takers that often bet high early in a hand before seeing how the other players are acting on their cards.

EditLooking Like a Pro

  1. Practice and watch others play to develop quick instincts. The more you play and watch, the faster and better you’ll get. Since every poker game is different, it’s important to develop good instincts rather than try to memorize and apply tricky systems. Observe experienced players and imagine how you’d react in their position. Then, watch how the experienced players react to build your own instincts.
    Play Poker Step 10.jpg
    • While you do this, consider how successful you’d have been if you were playing and reacted as you did. Would you have won, or would you have lost? Then, decide how you can improve your strategy going forward.
  2. Shuffle the cards and cut the deck before they’re dealt. Shuffling the cards mixes them up to make the game more fair. To do a basic shuffle, split the deck into 2 stacks. Next, hold a stack in each hand close together and facing each other. Use your thumbs to flip through the cards, combining the deck into one. After the cards are shuffled, get someone who isn’t the dealer to cut the deck by separating it into 2 stacks and placing the bottom stack on top.[14]
    Play Poker Step 19 Version 2.jpg
    • Do several shuffles to make sure the cards are mixed up.
    • You can cut the deck more than once if you’d like.
    • The dealer typically does the shuffling and bets last, which is called the “button” position. After each hand, you’ll pass the dealer/button position to the next player on the left. If the dealer is always the same person, like in a casino, the button position will still pass clockwise around the table.
  3. Say “check" to skip placing a bet or simply tap the table twice with two fingers. You can say this if you are the first better or if all those already betting have checked. If you say "check" when it's your turn at the beginning of a new hand, that means you are choosing not to place a bet at that point. Instead, you pass the chance to open to the next player.
    Play Poker Step 14.jpg
    • In the following rounds, if you say “check,” that means you’re staying with the bets you already paid into the pot during this hand, and you won’t pay more until someone else raises during their turn.
    • If another player does raise on that hand, then you nor anyone else can say "check" or maintain your “check”—so when the play comes around to you again you have to either match or raise the latest bet or fold your hand.
  4. Say "I open" if a bet hasn’t been placed yet and you want to open betting. For example, you could raise the ante $1 or at least the agreed minimum raise. If you choose not to open, take turns in clockwise order, until someone else has opened or every player checked. If everyone checks, then it is time to choose to discard and draw 1 to 3 cards, or "hold pat" on the cards you have. When there are fewer than 3 cards available to draw, replacements will be drawn.
    Play Poker Step 15.jpg
    • The dealer will have to shuffle the discards and add them to the bottom of the draw stack.
  5. Say “call” if you want to bet the same as the last person. Calling means making a bet equal to the last bet or raise. For example, if the person right of you just bet $10 and it's now your turn, you would say "call" or “I call” to match that bet. Then you would place $10 in chips or cash in the pot.
    Play Poker Step 16.jpg
  6. “Raise” to increase the current betting amount. This is also known as “sweetening the pot.” Raise or re-raise requires finishing this round and making another round to now allow any others to "call" or "raise" the amount of that last bet to stay in the game, or else "fold". The ones who already called can check on this turn and the hand is finished unless someone re-raises.[15]
    Play Poker Step 17.jpg
    • If someone before you bets $20 and you think you have a winning hand or you want to bluff, you can raise when it's your turn by saying “raise to $30.”
    • However, do not say “I see your 20, and I’ll raise you 10…” Despite being popular in movies, this is actually frowned upon as sloppy table talk.[16]
  7. Say “I fold” when you're ready to quit a hand. Folding means forfeiting your cards and giving up that pot with any bets you've made into it. Wait to be dealt into the next hand if you have chips or have not reached your limit of losses. To fold when it’s your turn, put your cards face down on the table and place them onto the discard pile.[17]
    Play Poker Step 18.jpg
    • You can fold at any point in a hand when it’s your turn.
  8. “Cash-in” when you’re ready to quit the game. This means exchanging your poker chips for money. If you still have chips but don’t want to play anymore, take your chips to the bank and tell them you’re ready to cash in. The bank will determine how much money your chips represent, then they’ll hand you cash.[18]
    Play Poker Step 25.jpg
    • You can usually return and watch the game after you cash in.

EditLearning Popular Poker Variations

  1. Master the basics of five-card draw. This variation has optional rules that can be agreed on before the game begins, such as whether or not to use jokers and wildcards, or which cards are high and low. The object of the game is similar to Texas Hold ‘Em: to get the best 5-card hand, but within the bounds of the your own 5-card hand, without common cards.
    Play Poker Step 20.jpg
    • Determine the betting structure by deciding if you’ll play fixed-limit, pot-limit, or no-limit.[19]
    • Decide on the dealer by asking "Who deals first?". Depending on the group you’re with and where you’re playing, a dealer may be elected or each player could draw for the position. The organizer or host may also choose to deal first.
  2. Learn 3-card draw. In this game, the players start by making an ante bet. The dealer and each of the players then get 3 cards, and the players must decide whether to make a play bet or fold. Finally, the dealer reveals their cards for a showdown and whoever has the best hand wins.[20]
    Play Poker Step 21.jpg
    • Like with 5-card draw, you can choose to vary the rules if you’re playing at home. For instance, jokers can be wild, meaning they can be used in represent any card value.
  3. Study some of the more obscure variations. If you really get into the game or just want to impress others with your knowledge of poker, learn the rules of the other variations. These include Straight Poker, 5-Card Stud, 7-Card Stud, Lowball, Omaha, Pineapple, Crazy Pineapple, Cincinnati, and Dr. Pepper.
    Play Poker Step 22.jpg
    • You can learn more about these games online.



  • You can bluff, or trick the other players into believing you have a powerful hand, by placing high bets. If they fall for it, they'll fold and you'll take the pot with a weak hand.
  • Select a "banker" if it is not a cash game. That person will issue and keep the supply of chips under lock and key.
  • You may also want to appoint a scorekeeper to track amounts gained and lost, as well as tally the standings.
  • Don't bet more than you are willing to lose—fold for that hand if some extremely high betting starts.
  • Watching professional poker players in tournaments is a great way to examine the dynamics of the game. You can watch these on TV or online.


  • If you do develop a gambling addiction, you can find help and resources by calling the national helpline at (1-800-522-4700) or going to a Gamblers Anonymous meeting.
  • Remember that poker and other gambling games can be extremely addictive. Pace yourself and limit betting to a healthy amount.


EditQuick Summary

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