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Friday, 31 January 2020

How to Make Mango Jam

Making jam is a great way to capture the natural sweetness and delicate flavor of mangoes. Chop the mangoes into small pieces and cook them with lots of sugar, lemon juice, and pectin. You can even customize your mango jam to come up with completely unique flavor combinations. Once the jam is as thick as you like, transfer it to sterilized jars and enjoy the jam on toast, waffles, or pancakes.


[Edit]Basic Mango Jam

  • 6 to 7 large mangoes
  • 1 cup (200 g) of sugar
  • of lemon juice
  • 2 tablespoons (25 g) of powdered pectin

Makes 2 cups (650 g) of jam


[Edit]Cooking Basic Mango Jam

  1. Slice the flesh from 6 or 7 large mangoes. Rinse the mangoes and put them on a cutting board. Hold a mango against the board and carefully cut down 1 side of it. Try to cut as close to the seed in the center, so you're able to remove the most fruit. Then, slice down the other side of the mango. Scoop the flesh from both pieces and chop it into pieces.[1]

    Make Mango Jam Step 1 Version 4.jpg
    • Use a small knife to trim the flesh around the seed itself.
    • You should get around 4 cups (660 g) of mango pieces.
  2. Put the mango pieces in a pot with sugar, lemon juice, and pectin. Place the chopped mango in a large pot on the stove. Add 1 cup (200 g) of sugar, of lemon juice, and 2 tablespoons (25 g) of powdered pectin.[2]

    • The pectin helps the jam set up. If you prefer a looser jam, you can leave the pectin out.
  3. Stir the mixture and cook it over low heat until the sugar dissolves. Stir well so the mango pieces are coated with the sugar. Continue to stir the mixture every few minutes until the sugar dissolves and becomes liquidy.[3]

    • It should take about 3 to 4 minutes for the sugar to dissolve.
  4. Bring the jam to a boil over medium-high heat. Turn the burner up so the liquid becomes syrupy and starts to bubble vigorously. Stir the jam occasionally to prevent it from sticking to the pot or boiling over.[4]

    • It's important to use a large pot so the jam doesn't bubble over as it cooks.
  5. Cook the mango jam until it reaches . Clip a candy thermometer to the side of the pot or occasionally insert an instant-read thermometer into the jam to see if the jam has reached the setting temperature of . Stir the jam occasionally as it bubbles and thickens.[5]

    Make Mango Jam Step 5 Version 3.jpg
    • Skim off foam that floats to the top of the jam and discard it since becomes rubbery if you leave it in the jam.
  6. Spoon the jam into sterilized jars. Get out 2 sterilized half-pint jars and place a funnel on a jar. Carefully spoon the mango jam into the jar and leave headspace. Place a sterilized lid on the jar and screw on a band until it's finger tight.[6]

    • Although you can soften the lids in hot water before pressing them on the jars, you don't have to in order to get a good seal.
  7. Process the jars or store them in the refrigerator. For long-term storage, place the jars in a water bath so they're covered by at least of water. Boil the jars for 10 minutes and then set the jars aside until the jars are at room temperature. If you don't want to can the jam, put the jars in the refrigerator and use them within 3 weeks.[7]
    Make Mango Jam Step 7 Version 4.jpg
    • If you process the jam, store the jars at room temperature for up to 1 year. Press down on the lid to check that the seal doesn't pop back up before you open the jar and eat the jam.

[Edit]Trying Variations

  1. Swap half of the mango for peaches or nectarines. Although pure mango jam is delicious, it's also fun to add another fruit to the jam. Use half of the mango called for in the recipe and replace the other half with peeled peaches, nectarines, or stonefruit. Mango also pairs well with any of these fruits:[8]
    Make Mango Jam Step 8 Version 3.jpg
    • Strawberries
    • Papaya
    • Pineapple
    • Raspberries
    • Plums
  2. Substitute honey or alternative sweetener for the granulated sugar. If you don't want to use white sugar, add as much of your favorite sweetener as you like. Try honey, agave, or a low-calorie sweetener. Keep in mind that since sugar acts as a preservative and you're leaving it out, you'll need to refrigerate the mango jam and use it sooner.[9]
    Make Mango Jam Step 9 Version 3.jpg
    • Store jars of the mango jam in the fridge for up to 3 weeks.
  3. Add 1 teaspoon (2 g) of your favorite ground spice for a unique flavor. Customize your mango jam by stirring in dried spice halfway through the cooking time. You can use a single spice or a combination that equals 1 teaspoon (2 g). Consider using any of these spices or seasonings:[10]
    Make Mango Jam Step 10 Version 3.jpg
    • Cardamom
    • Cinnamon
    • Ginger
    • Nutmeg
    • Vanilla paste
  4. Leave out the sugar and pectin to make a loose mango spread. If you want the natural sweetness of the mango to really come out, don't add any sugar, honey, or sweetener. Cook the mango with of water over medium heat until the mango breaks down and thickens.[11]
    Make Mango Jam Step 11 Version 3.jpg
    • If you'd like smoother spread, push the mango spread through a fine-mesh strainer set over a bowl.
    • Because there's no added sweetener to the spread, store it in the refrigerator and use it within 2 weeks.


  • If you can't find fresh mangoes to use, buy frozen mangoes that have already been peeled and chopped. Thaw them overnight in the refrigerator before making the jam.

[Edit]Things You'll Need

  • Measuring cups and spoons
  • Knife and cutting board
  • Large pot
  • Spoon
  • Small plate
  • Candy thermometer or instant-read thermometer
  • Funnel
  • Jars with lids

[Edit]Related wikiHows


[Edit]Quick Summary

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How to Make a Paper Straw

Paper straws come in all sorts of colors and are a great way to add a unique touch to any event. They can get expensive, however, and sometimes you just can't find the exact color or pattern that you need. Fortunately, it's possible to make paper straws at home. All you need to get started are dowels, scrapbooking paper, some glue, and paraffin wax.


[Edit]Cutting and Rolling the Straws

  1. Cut patterned scrapbooking paper into wide strips. Find some scrapbooking paper in a pattern that you like, then use a paper slicer or paper guillotine to cut it into wide strips. How many strips you cut is up to you. Each strip will make 1 straw.[1]

    • Don't use scrapbooking cardstock; it's too stiff and heavy to hold curls, which is vital to making straws.[2] You can also use printer paper for plain white straws.
    • Look for standard, patterned scrapbooking paper. It's a medium-weight, paper.[3]
  2. Apply glue to the back of a strip, from a long edge. Flip a strip over so that the back is visible. Next, draw a line of liquid glue along 1 of the long edges. Rather than having the glue touch the edge, however, apply it from the edge. The glue should still touch the narrow edges of the strip, however.[4]

    • In most cases, the back of the paper will be white. If you're using double-sided paper, work on the side that you don't want to be visible.
    • Any type of liquid glue will work as long as it says “non-toxic” on the bottle. Make sure that you make the line as thin as possible.
  3. Set a thick dowel at a 45-degree angle at 1 end of the strip. One end of the dowel should be sticking out just part the corner that has the glue on it. The rest of the dowel should be facing the un-glued edge of the paper.[5]
    Make a Paper Straw Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • Choose a dowel that is about long. This will be much easier to work with than a long dowel.
    • If you can't find a dowel that short, cut a longer one down with a hand saw or heavy-duty gardening shears.
  4. Roll the paper around the dowel, overlapping it with each wrap. Make sure that you overlap the paper enough so that the glued edge touches paper—not wood. A little over would be good. This is sort of like making a candy cane, except that you aren't leaving any gaps between the "stripes."[6]

    • Keep the paper snug so that it holds its shape, but don't roll it too tightly, or it will be difficult to remove.
    • If the end of the paper doesn't stay down, secure it with a drop of glue.
  5. Slide the paper off the dowel and allow it to dry overnight. The paper should stick together on its own, even after you slide it off the dowel. If you're worried about it coming unrolled, however, wrap painter's tape around each end before you pull the paper off.[7]

    • Painter's tape is a great choice because it's easy to remove and doesn't leave residue.
    • Once you have removed the first straw, you can use the dowel to create more.
  6. Trim the ends of the straws to make them flat. Because of how you rolled the paper, the ends of the straws will be pointy. This won't be very comfortable or convenient when it comes to drinking from the straws, so use a pair of scissors to snip the points off.[8]

    • If you made more than 1 straw, measure the straws against each other to ensure that they're all the same length.
    • How short you cut your straw is up to you. Make sure that both ends are flat and not angled, however.
    • The ends of the straw may get dented as you cut them. Use a chopstick, knitting needle, or other tapered tool to push them back into shape.[9]

[Edit]Coating the Straws

  1. Break some canning paraffin wax into a jar. Find a large glass jar that's deep enough to fit your straw all the way in. Break some paraffin wax into smaller pieces, then add them to the jar. Use enough wax to fill the jar 1/2 to 2/3 of the way; how much you end up using will depend on the size of the jar.[10]

    • Don't use candle-making wax as it may not be food-safe. If you can't find canning paraffin wax, use beeswax. Be aware that it will have a slight fragrance.
    • Do not use soy wax. It melts at low temperatures and will give your straws a sticky, greasy feel.
  2. Melt the wax in a pot of hot water over low to medium-low heat. Place the jar into a pot, then fill the pot with a few inches/centimeters of water. Turn the stove on to low or medium-low heat, and wait for the wax to melt. This can take 10 to 15 minutes, so be patient.[11]

    • As the wax melts, you may need to add more pieces of paraffin wax; it needs to be deep enough to fit your straw 1/2 or 2/3 of the way in.
    • Paraffin wax is flammable, so don't be tempted to speed the process up by turning the heat up. Slow, low, and steady is the key.[12]
    • How much water you use will vary. The top of the water needs to be level with the top of the wax in the jar.
  3. Dip the straw into the wax then pull it out. Don't leave the straw in the wax for too long. Just dip it in and pull it out. If you leave it too long in the wax, the glue may dissolve and the straw may come apart.[13]

    • You won't be able to dip the straw all the way in, which is fine. As long as you can get it 1/2 to 2/3 of the way into the wax, you're good.
  4. Let the wax drip back into the jar then wipe the rest off with a towel. Hold the straw over the jar of melted wax until it stops dripping. Next, run a paper towel across the waxed portion of the straw to remove the excess wax.[14]

    • Don't remove all of the wax—just the excess. A light sweep of your paper towel should be plenty.[15]
    • If the end of the straw is clogged with wax, stick a chopstick into it, twist it 2 to 3 times, then pull it out.[16]
    • The wax shouldn't stick to the paper towel. If it does, use a paper towel with a smoother texture. Don't use tissues or toilet paper; they're too soft and will stick.
  5. Dip the other side of the straw into the wax, then wipe that off too. Rotate the straw by 180 degrees, then dip the other end into the wax. Pull it out immediately, then let the wax drip back into the jar. Use a paper towel to wipe the excess wax off.[17]

    • The wax should already be hard by the time you rotate it and dip it. If it's still wet, however, let it dry first; otherwise, you'll get fingerprints.
    • Dip the straw a little more than 1/2 or 2/3 of the way so that the wax overlaps onto the already-waxed portion. This way, you won't have any gaps.[18]
  6. Let the straw finish drying on a plastic bag. The wax layer is very thin, so it should harden almost instantly. The inside of the straw may still be wet however, so set the straw down on a plastic bag and let it dry for a few minutes. Once the straw is dry, it's ready to use.[19]
    Make a Paper Straw Step 12.jpg
    • The straw may look translucent once it's dry, which is normal. This is due to the nature of the paraffin wax.
    • If you have other straws to dip, now is the time to do so.


  • If you don't have access to a stove, heat the wax in a jar on a candle warmer or mug warmer.[20]
  • If you can't find paper that you like, print out your own designs. Since you'll be coating the paper with wax anyway, you don't have to worry about the ink bleeding.[21]
  • If the hot water is generating too much steam, turn the stove off. The wax will remain in a liquid state long enough for you to be able to dip at least a couple of straws.[22]
  • Don't pour the leftover wax down the drain. Let it harden, then discard it in the trash. Alternatively, use it to make candles.

[Edit]Things You’ll Need

  • Scrapbooking paper
  • A paper trimmer or paper guillotine
  • Non-toxic liquid glue
  • Scissors
  • wide wood dowel
  • Paraffin wax
  • Glass jar
  • Pot
  • Paper towels

[Edit]Related wikiHows


  1. http://www.natashalh.com/how-to-make-your-own-custom-paper-straws-great-for-diy-weddings-and-holidays/
  2. http://www.lookatwhatimade.net/crafts/paper/make-your-own-paper-drinking-straws/
  3. https://www.scrapbook.com/articles/everything-you-need-to-know-about-paper
  4. http://www.natashalh.com/how-to-make-your-own-custom-paper-straws-great-for-diy-weddings-and-holidays/
  5. http://www.natashalh.com/how-to-make-your-own-custom-paper-straws-great-for-diy-weddings-and-holidays/
  6. http://www.natashalh.com/how-to-make-your-own-custom-paper-straws-great-for-diy-weddings-and-holidays/
  7. http://www.natashalh.com/how-to-make-your-own-custom-paper-straws-great-for-diy-weddings-and-holidays/
  8. http://www.natashalh.com/how-to-make-your-own-custom-paper-straws-great-for-diy-weddings-and-holidays/
  9. http://www.lookatwhatimade.net/crafts/paper/make-your-own-paper-drinking-straws/
  10. http://www.natashalh.com/how-to-make-your-own-custom-paper-straws-great-for-diy-weddings-and-holidays/
  11. http://www.natashalh.com/how-to-make-your-own-custom-paper-straws-great-for-diy-weddings-and-holidays/
  12. http://www.lookatwhatimade.net/crafts/paper/make-your-own-paper-drinking-straws/
  13. http://www.natashalh.com/how-to-make-your-own-custom-paper-straws-great-for-diy-weddings-and-holidays/
  14. http://www.natashalh.com/how-to-make-your-own-custom-paper-straws-great-for-diy-weddings-and-holidays/
  15. http://www.lookatwhatimade.net/crafts/paper/make-your-own-paper-drinking-straws/
  16. http://www.lookatwhatimade.net/crafts/paper/make-your-own-paper-drinking-straws/
  17. http://www.natashalh.com/how-to-make-your-own-custom-paper-straws-great-for-diy-weddings-and-holidays/
  18. http://www.lookatwhatimade.net/crafts/paper/make-your-own-paper-drinking-straws/
  19. http://www.natashalh.com/how-to-make-your-own-custom-paper-straws-great-for-diy-weddings-and-holidays/
  20. http://www.natashalh.com/how-to-make-your-own-custom-paper-straws-great-for-diy-weddings-and-holidays/
  21. http://www.lookatwhatimade.net/crafts/paper/make-your-own-paper-drinking-straws/
  22. http://www.lookatwhatimade.net/crafts/paper/make-your-own-paper-drinking-straws/

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How to Write a Research Statement

The research statement is a very common component of job applications in academia. The statement provides a summary of your research experience, interests, and agenda for reviewers to use to assess your candidacy for a position. Because the research statement introduces you as a researcher to the people reviewing your job application, it’s important to make the statement as impressive as possible. After you’ve planned out what you want to say, all you have to do is write your research statement with the right structure, style, and formatting!


[Edit]Planning Your Research Statement

  1. Ask yourself what the major themes or questions in your research are. Outline the main questions that drive your research and that you strive to answer. Write these questions and topics down so that you’ll be better able to articulate them in your research statement.[1]
    Write a Research Statement Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • For example, some of the major themes of your research might be slavery and race in the 18th century, the efficacy of cancer treatments, or the reproductive cycles of different species of crab.
    • You may have several small questions that guide specific aspects of your research. Write all of these questions out, then see if you can formulate a broader question that encapsulates all of these smaller questions.
  2. Identify why your research is important. Do this for academics both inside and outside your field, even if the position you’re applying for is in your field of study. Additionally, expect your audience to have a basic understanding of your field, but don't assume they will be an expert in a particular discipline. This might includes ways that your research can be applied to future problems or simply how your research addresses a knowledge gap in your field.[2]
    Write a Research Statement Step 2 Version 2.jpg
    • For example, if your work is on x-ray technology, describe how your research has filled any knowledge gaps in your field, as well as how it could be applied to x-ray machines in hospitals.
    • It’s important to be able to articulate why your research should matter to people who don’t study what you study to generate interest in your research outside your field. This is very helpful when you go to apply for grants for future research.
  3. Describe what your future research interests are. The reviewers who read your statement don’t just want to know what you’ve researched in the past; they also want to know what you plan to research if they give you the job or fellowship you’re applying for. Think about what new questions you would like this research to answer or what new elements of your topic you’d like to explore.[3]
    Write a Research Statement Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • Explain why these are the things you want to research next. Do your best to link your prior research to what you hope to study in the future. This will help give your reviewer a deeper sense of what motivates your research and why it matters.
  4. Think of examples of challenges or problems you’ve solved. These can be questions that your previous research has answered or problems that have emerged during the course of your research that you had to work around. This will serve not only to demonstrate your problem-solving abilities, but also to highlight how your past research has been successful.[4]
    Write a Research Statement Step 4 Version 2.jpg
    • For example, if your research was historical and the documents you needed to answer your question didn’t exist, describe how you managed to pursue your research agenda using other types of documents.
  5. List the relevant skills you can use at the institution you’re applying to. Mention these skills throughout your research statement and describe how you were able to use them to achieve a goal. This will help the committee assess how compatible you are with the research undertaken at the institution and how likely you are to succeed in the future.[5]
    Write a Research Statement Step 5 Version 2.jpg
    • Some skills you might be able to highlight include experience working with digital archives, knowledge of a foreign language, or the ability to work collaboratively. When you're describing your skills, use specific, action-oriented words, rather than just personality traits. For example, you might write "speak Spanish" or "handled digital files."
    • Don’t be modest about describing your skills. You want your research statement to impress whoever is reading it.

[Edit]Structuring and Writing the Statement

  1. Put an executive summary in the first section. Write 1-2 paragraphs that include a summary of your research agenda and its main focus, any publications you have, your plans for future research, and your ultimate career goals. Place these paragraphs at the very beginning of your research statement. Treat this section as a concise summary of the things you plan to talk about in the rest of the statement.[6]
    Write a Research Statement Step 6 Version 2.jpg
    • Because this section summarizes the rest of your research statement, you may want to write the executive summary after you’ve written the other sections first.
    • Write your executive summary so that if the reviewer chooses to only read this section instead of your whole statement, they will still learn everything they need to know about you as an applicant.
    • Make sure that you only include factual information that you can prove or demonstrate. Don't embellish or editorialize your experience to make it seem like it's more than it is.
  2. Describe your graduate research in the second section. Write 1-2 paragraphs that detail the specific research project or projects you did in graduate school, including your dissertation or thesis. Be sure to describe why your research was important, what challenges you overcame in carrying out this research, and what skills you developed as a result.[7]
    Write a Research Statement Step 7 Version 2.jpg
    • If you received a postdoctoral fellowship, describe your postdoc research in this section as well.
    • If at all possible, include research in this section that goes beyond just your thesis or dissertation. Your application will be much stronger if reviewers see you as a researcher in a more general sense than as just a student.
  3. Discuss your current research projects in the third section. This is especially important if you’re applying for a position after you’ve already graduated from graduate school. Write about research you’ve carried out since your graduation to give the reviewers an image of you as a professional researcher.[8]
    Write a Research Statement Step 8 Version 2.jpg
    • Again, as with the section on your graduate research, be sure to include a description of why this research matters and what relevant skills you bring to bear on it.
    • If you’re still in graduate school, you can omit this section.
  4. Write about your future research interests in the fourth section. Describe in 1 paragraph the different themes, questions, and topics you’d pursue in your research if your application is accepted. If you have multiple different projects you’re interested in pursuing, use more than 1 paragraph to make this section more organized.[9]
    Write a Research Statement Step 9 Version 2.jpg
    • Be realistic in describing your future research projects. Don’t describe potential projects or interests that are extremely different from your current projects. If all of your research to this point has been on the American civil war, future research projects in microbiology will sound very farfetched.
  5. Acknowledge how your work complements others’ research. Take every opportunity you can in your research statement to point out areas where the work being done at the institution you’re applying to is similar to your own research. This will indicate to your reviewers that you’ve researched the institution and you’ve actually thought about your future there.[10]
    Write a Research Statement Step 10 Version 2.jpg
    • For example, add a sentence that says “Dr. Jameson’s work on the study of slavery in colonial Georgia has served as an inspiration for my own work on slavery in South Carolina. I would welcome the opportunity to be able to collaborate with her on future research projects.”
  6. Discuss potential funding partners in your research statement. Talk about the different research grants, fellowships, and other sources of funding that you could apply for during your tenure with the institution. This will help the committee to see the value that you’d bring to the institution if they hired you.[11]
    Write a Research Statement Step 11 Version 2.jpg
    • For example, if your research focuses on the history of Philadelphia, add a sentence to the paragraph on your future research projects that says, “I believe based on my work that I would be a very strong candidate to receive a Balch Fellowship from the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.”
    • If you’ve received funding for your research in the past, mention this as well.
  7. Aim to keep your research statement to about 2 pages. It’s okay if your statement is closer to 1 page or 3 pages, so long as it isn’t too short or too long. If you can’t fit everything you’re trying to say to around 2 pages, cut some of the less important sections or use more concise language.[12]
    Write a Research Statement Step 12 Version 2.jpg
    • Typically, your research statement should be about 1-2 pages long if you're applying for a humanities or social sciences position. For a position in psychology or the hard sciences, your research statement may be 3-4 pages long.
    • Although you may think that having a longer research statement makes you seem more impressive, it’s more important that the reviewer actually read the statement. If it seems too long, they may just skip it, which will hurt your application.

[Edit]Formatting and Editing

  1. Maintain a polite and formal tone throughout the statement. Use language and phrases that you would use in a formal setting and that speaks to your professionalism. Remember, the people reading your statement are assessing you as a job candidate.[13]
    Write a Research Statement Step 13 Version 2.jpg
    • For example, instead of saying, “This part of my research was super hard,” say, “I found this obstacle to be particularly challenging.”
  2. Avoid using technical jargon when writing the statement. Write your statement so that a person outside your field can understand your research projects and interests as well as someone in your field can. The reviewer can’t get excited about your research if they can’t understand what it’s about![14]
    Write a Research Statement Step 14 Version 2.jpg
    • For example, if your research is primarily in anthropology, refrain from using phrases like “Gini coefficient” or “moiety.” Only use phrases that someone in a different field would probably be familiar with, such as “cultural construct,” “egalitarian,” or “social division.”
    • If you have trusted friends or colleagues in fields other than your own, ask them to read your statement for you to make sure you don’t use any words or concepts that they can’t understand.
  3. Write in present tense, except when you’re describing your past work. Use present verb tense to talk about your current and future research projects, potential collaborators, and potential sources of funding. Only write in the past tense when you’re writing about research and accomplishments that actually took place in the past.[15]
    Write a Research Statement Step 15 Version 2.jpg
    • For example, when describing your dissertation, say, “I hypothesized that…” When describing your future research projects, say, “I intend to…” or “My aim is to research…”
  4. Use single spacing and 11- or 12-point font. Since your research statement is fairly short, there's no need to double-space the text. If your statement is physically difficult to read because of a very small font, the reviewer may develop negative feelings towards it and thus towards your entire application. [16]
    Write a Research Statement Step 16 Version 2.jpg
    • At the same time, don’t make your font too big. If you write your research statement in a font larger than 12, you run the risk of appearing unprofessional.
  5. Use section headings to organize your statement. Use descriptive headings like “Current Research,” “Future Research Projects,” and so on that delineate the different sections you used to structure your research statement. If any of your sections are particularly long, consider using subheadings within these sections to make your statement even more organized.[17]
    Write a Research Statement Step 17 Version 2.jpg
    • For instance, if you completed a postdoc, use subheadings in the section on previous research experience to delineate the research you did in graduate school and the research you did during your fellowship.
  6. Proofread your research statement thoroughly before submitting it. Even if your research sounds very impressive, a spelling error or grammatical mistake on your research statement can seriously undercut your application. Have a friend read over your statement for you to make sure you haven’t overlooked any simple mistakes.[18]
    Write a Research Statement Step 18 Version 2.jpg


  1. https://academiccoachingandwriting.org/academic-writing/academic-writing-blog/vi-writing-the-research-statement-how-and-why-you-research-what-you-do/
  2. https://www.vpul.upenn.edu/careerservices/writtenmaterials/researchstatements.php
  3. https://www.vpul.upenn.edu/careerservices/writtenmaterials/researchstatements.php
  4. https://postdocs.cornell.edu/research-statement
  5. https://gradschool.cornell.edu/academic-progress/pathways-to-success/prepare-for-your-career/take-action/research-statement/
  6. https://career.ucsf.edu/sites/career.ucsf.edu/files/PDF/ResearcherResearchStatementTips.pdf
  7. https://career.ucsf.edu/sites/career.ucsf.edu/files/PDF/ResearcherResearchStatementTips.pdf
  8. https://career.ucsf.edu/sites/career.ucsf.edu/files/PDF/ResearcherResearchStatementTips.pdf
  9. https://career.ucsf.edu/sites/career.ucsf.edu/files/PDF/ResearcherResearchStatementTips.pdf
  10. https://academiccoachingandwriting.org/academic-writing/academic-writing-blog/vi-writing-the-research-statement-how-and-why-you-research-what-you-do/
  11. https://postdocs.cornell.edu/research-statement
  12. https://postdocs.cornell.edu/research-statement
  13. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/english_as_a_second_language/esl_students/audience_considerations_for_esl_writers/tone_and_purpose.html
  14. https://postdocs.cornell.edu/research-statement
  15. https://www.unl.edu/gradstudies/connections/writing-about-your-research-verb-tense
  16. https://gradschool.cornell.edu/academic-progress/pathways-to-success/prepare-for-your-career/take-action/research-statement/
  17. https://gradschool.cornell.edu/academic-progress/pathways-to-success/prepare-for-your-career/take-action/research-statement/
  18. https://postdocs.cornell.edu/research-statement

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Thursday, 30 January 2020

How to Have a Good Job Interview

Getting a job interview is an exciting and scary experience. You want to make a great impression on your interviewer and get the job, but you likely feel super nervous. To have a good interview, do your homework ahead of time by researching the employer, reviewing the job description, and planning how you’ll answer questions. Then, make a good impression by dressing professionally and arriving on time. When you’re talking to your interviewer, focus on how you fit the company and try to give memorable answers. Then, follow up with the interviewer to increase your chances of getting hired.


[Edit]Doing Your Homework

  1. Research the potential employer before the interview. Type the name of the company into your favorite internet search engine. Review their website, then check out their recent postings on social media. Next, look for news articles about the company. Learn as much as you can so you can show that knowledge in your interview.[1]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 1 Version 4.jpg
    • Pay attention to the company’s mission statement, their current goals or projects, and their future plans.
    • Look for materials that were provided to employees, shareholders, or potential investors.
  2. Find the interviewer on LinkedIn so you can learn about them. Learning about your interview allows you to build a rapport with them. Additionally, you can tailor your answers to them, which might help you get the job. Check out your interviewer's profile to find out where they went to school, where they've worked, and what jobs they've held. Try to find some commonalities with them.[2]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 2 Version 4.jpg
    • For example, if you both studied the same major in college, you might be able to bring that up in your interview.
    • If they don't have a LinkedIn account, see if you can find them on other social media sites. However, don't stalk your interviewer and be careful with information that isn't related to work. Your interviewer won't be impressed by your knowledge about their family life.
  3. Review the job description so you can explain why you’re a good fit. Your interview is your chance to show why you’re a good fit for the job, and the job description tells you exactly how to do that. Read over the job description to identify the skills and abilities the company wants in a successful candidate. Then, connect your work and education history to what they’re looking for.[3]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 3 Version 4.jpg
    • For instance, let’s say the job description includes “self-starter,” “able to create innovative solutions,” and “team mindset.” You might identify instances where you’ve worked alone and met deadlines, examples of creative solutions you’ve implemented, and stories about your successes on team projects.
  4. Practice answering common questions before your interview. While some employers throw in random questions, there are several popular interview questions that appear in most job interviews. Review these questions and develop a good answer based on your work and education history. Then, practice delivering your answers. Here are some common questions:[4]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 4 Version 4.jpg
    • What are your strengths?
    • What are your weaknesses?
    • Why do you want to work for this company?
    • Where do you see yourself in 5 years? What about 10 years?
    • Why are you leaving your current company?
    • What do you think you offer that no one else will?
    • When did you make a mistake in the past? What happened?
    • What is an accomplishment that makes you proud?
  5. Do a mock interview with a friend or family member. Doing mock interviews helps you practice giving your answers to another person. Pick someone who is supportive of you but will give you honest feedback about how you can improve. Then, give them a list of common interview questions that they can ask. Treat the mock interview just like a regular interview.[5]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 5 Version 4.jpg
    • Ask the mock interviewer to bring you into the interview space and sit you down. Then, answer their questions just like you would in a normal interview.
    • If you can't get someone to interview you, film yourself answering the questions aloud. Then, watch the video to see how you can improve.
  6. Make a list of 5-10 potential questions you can ask. Asking questions in an interview shows that you’re interested in the job and took the time to prepare. Based on your research and the job description, identify 5-10 potential questions that you might ask at the interview. Write your questions down so that you’ll have a few options in mind when you go in for your interview.[6]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 6 Version 4.jpg
    • For instance, you could ask questions like, “Are there opportunities for growth here?” “How big is the team?” or “What resources are available for the project?”
    • Ask about the biggest projects you’ll be working on. This shows your employer that you’ve closely read the job description and are anticipating taking on the role.
    • It’s okay to ask questions that come to you during the interview. Your list of questions should be a fall-back.
  7. Identify career or education-related stories you can tell in the interview. Telling a story can help you demonstrate that you have the skills for the job. Think about times that you accomplished something significant, created a solution, handled a difficult situation, overcame an obstacle, or demonstrated leadership skills. Then, practice explaining those experiences in a way that highlights your best qualities.[7]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 7 Version 4.jpg
    • For example, you might explain how you handled someone stealing credit for your work at a past job or how you got the best out of a team that wasn’t collaborating well.
    • Similarly, you might highlight your accomplishments by telling a story about how you attained your most lucrative client or how you solved a problem that could have been a major liability for your company.
  8. Bring copies of your resume and portfolio if you have one. Your interviewer likely has a copy of your cover letter or resume, but having your own copies makes you look ultra-prepared. Take a folder containing several copies of your resume and cover letter to the interview, just in case. Additionally, bring a copy of your work portfolio if that’s common in your industry.[8]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 8 Version 4.jpg
    • For instance, you might bring a portfolio if you’re interviewing for a design job. However, you probably won’t need one if you’re interviewing to be a nurse or a barista.

[Edit]Making a Good First Impression

  1. Dress professionally to show you’re serious about getting the job. Choose an outfit that reflects the position you want to attain. Additionally, make sure your outfit is clean, wrinkle-free, and fits well. This will show the potential employer that you take your career seriously.[9]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 9 Version 4.jpg
    • Don't wear a bunch of cologne or perfume to your interview. Some people are sensitive to smells, so the scent might detract from what you're saying.
    • If you know the company culture includes more casual dress, it’s okay to choose an outfit that fits with the typical workplace attire.
  2. Turn off your phone and other electronics before the interview. You probably have a lot of important concerns right now, but dealing with them in a job interview is a no-no. Put your phone and other electronics on silent or turn them completely off. If you feel your phone go off, ignore it until after the interview.[10]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 10 Version 3.jpg
    • If you’re in a unique situation where you can’t turn off your phone, discuss this with your interviewer ahead of time. For instance, if you were an on-call nurse who’s interviewing for a job as a college professor, you might need to take a call from the hospital. In this unique case, your interviewer might understand.
  3. Arrive to your interview 10-15 minutes early. It’s really important that you be on time for the interview. Not only does it show you’re reliable, it also demonstrates that you can plan ahead for unfamiliar situations. Being late for any reason will make you look unorganized and unconcerned.[11]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 11 Version 3.jpg
    • Don’t arrive more than 15 minutes early because it may confuse or inconvenience your interviewer. If you arrive to the location really early, go for a short walk or review your interview materials while you wait outside.
  4. Make eye contact when you meet your interviewer. Eye contact shows the interviewer that you’re really listening to them and helps create a connection. Additionally, it projects that you have good interpersonal skills. Maintain eye contact during your greeting and throughout the interview.[12]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 12 Version 3.jpg
    • If eye contact is hard for you, practice by making eye contact with yourself in a mirror or practice with a relative or friend.
  5. Give a firm handshake so you seem confident. When you meet your interviewer, go in for a handshake. Give their hand a firm squeeze and pump your arm twice before pulling away. This shows them that you're confident and have strong interpersonal skills.[13]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 13 Version 3.jpg
    • If your palm is sweaty, discreetly wipe your hand off on your clothes or a tissue before you go in for the handshake.

[Edit]Talking to the Interviewer

  1. Set a positive, enthusiastic tone throughout the interview. You'll be a stronger candidate if you appear to have a good attitude and seem excited about the job. Focus your answers on your accomplishments and how you hope to succeed moving forward. When you talk about past obstacles, explain how they've helped you grow and what lessons you've learned.[14]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 14.jpg
    • For instance, tell the interviewer that you're excited to take on new job tasks. Say, "I'm really excited about the opportunities for growth here. This project sounds really exciting."
    • When talking about a conflict with a past coworker, say, "Communication with my team leader at my prior job was difficult at first, but our relationship taught me new ways to communicate. Because we compromised, we were able to complete our project ahead of schedule."
  2. Explain why you’re a great fit for the position and the company. The interviewer wants to know how you’ll solve the company’s problems, so tell them why you’ll perform well in the position if you’re hired. Discuss how your skills fit the job description and what your first steps will be if you’re hired. Additionally, use stories about your past work to show how you’ll perform well at this company.[15]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 15.jpg
    • Your answers to each question should focus on how your knowledge, skills, and background fit this position and this company.
    • As an example, let’s say they ask you, “Why do you want to work for this company?” You might say something like, “I love that this company is focused on innovation instead of maintaining the status quo. In my career, I’ve developed systems that explore new concepts, and I want to pursue that further.”
  3. Tell a unique story about your career or education so you’re memorable. The company is likely interviewing a lot of candidates, so it’s easy to blend in with the other interviewees. To stand out, tell a story that makes you memorable. Make sure that one of the stories you pick from your work or education history sets you apart from the other candidates, then include that in your answers to the interview questions.[16]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 16.jpg
    • For example, let’s say your interviewer has asked, “What is a time that you made a mistake in the past? What happened?” You might reply, “At my previous job, I saved an important client presentation to a USB drive that I accidentally broke on the way to the client meeting. I knew my company needed to impress the client, so I had to recreate the presentation from scratch. I made myself a couple of notecards and delivered the presentation from memory. To make up for the lack of visuals, I incorporated audience participation. The representatives had so much fun in the presentation that they invited me to lunch and signed a contract that same day.”
  4. Put a positive spin on past career obstacles so you seem resilient. You’ve likely had some tough workdays and possibly a boss or coworker you hated. However, it’s never a good look to bring this up in an interview. Instead, talk about how you thrived when going through an obstacle and focus on the best qualities in your former coworkers.[17]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 17.jpg
    • For instance, let’s say your boss yelled a lot and degraded you. Instead of talking about how bad of a boss they were, you might say, “We didn’t always see eye-to-eye, but my former boss and I talked every day.”
  5. Avoid telling jokes because they might make you look less professional. Jokes are tricky because they might get misunderstood. The interviewer could be offended or might mistake your joke for a sign that you don't care about your work. Play it safe and don't make jokes.[18]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 18.jpg
    • It's okay if you tell a story that's slightly humorous. However, don't try to make something funny if it's not.
    • Never tell jokes about your profession or the interviewer's job. They might not appreciate your sense of humor.
  6. Be honest about your weaknesses but explain how you’ll improve. You might feel embarrassed about your weaknesses, and that’s totally normal. However, lying or trying to pretend your weaknesses are really strengths won’t do you any favors. Instead, explain what your biggest weakness has been in the past. Then, discuss what you’re doing to improve on it.[19]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 19.jpg
    • As an example, don't try to turn your weakness into a strength by saying, "My biggest weakness is that I'm too dedicated to my job." The interviewer will only think that you're not being honest about your actual weaknesses.
    • You might say, “I sometimes get flustered when I’m speaking to large groups. While people don’t seem to notice, I think my job performance will be better if I improve my public speaking skills. I’ve recently joined Toastmasters and I’m already feeling more confident.”
  7. Ask your interviewer questions about the job. Your interviewer will give you a chance to ask questions about the job, which typically occurs at the end of the interview. Ask 3-5 questions based on what you discussed or from your list of prepared questions. This shows that you’re interested in the job.[20]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 20.jpg
    • You might ask, “What does the timeline look like for the upcoming project?” or “Will the selected candidate be able to suggest new opportunities from growing sales?”

[Edit]Closing the Interview

  1. Thank the interviewer for their time and assistance. Your interviewer is probably really busy, so they’ll appreciate your acknowledgement of their time. Shake their hand and tell them that you’re appreciative of the chance to interview. Additionally, thank them for any special help they’ve given you, such as telling you more about the company, explaining where to park, or setting the interview at a time that works for you.[21]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 21.jpg
    • Say, “Thank you so much for taking the time to talk with me. I really appreciate the information you provided about this great opportunity.”
  2. Tell the interviewer that you want the job. It’s common for people to change their mind about a job after their interview. Because of this, your interviewer is likely to focus on the candidates who seem the most excited about filling this position. Before you leave, make it clear that you want this job by directly telling the interviewer.[22]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 22.jpg
    • You might say, “I know this job is a perfect fit for my skills, and I hope I get the chance to help your company reach its goals.”
  3. Send a follow-up email or thank you note. Some interviewers perceive a follow-up as an indication that a person is really interested. For most jobs, it’s best to send a brief email telling the interviewer that you appreciate the opportunity and are available to discuss the job further. However, you might send a handwritten note if you work in a creative industry or the non-profit sector.[23]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 23.jpg
    • Write, “Dear Mr. Jones, Thank you for taking the time to meet with me today. I’m even more excited about this opportunity. I’d really like the opportunity to talk to you more about what I can do for your company. Thanks, Amy Lincoln.”
  4. Prepare to discuss your skills with several people at a second interview. During a second interview, you'll typically expand on your work history and abilities, often with stories about your past jobs. Identify additional stories that you can use to show that you'll fit into this position. Additionally, review a list of out-of-the-box interview questions so you can practice thinking on your feet.[24]
    Have a Good Job Interview Step 24.jpg
    • It's likely that you'll interview with a panel or several different people. Assume that you're going to be talking to several people from different departments.
    • Get someone you trust to ask you a bunch of random questions so you can practice answering.

[Edit]Additional Help



  • Don’t get off-topic because it can waste your interview time. Your interviewer likely has a block of time reserved for this interview, so use every moment to show why you’re a good fit.
  • If you don’t know an answer, admit that you need to learn more about that topic. Say, “I’m not as well-informed about that topic, but I’ll find the answer after this interview.”
  • If you have an interview with a company that you do not want to keep, you may need to decline it as soon as possible.


  • Remember that your interviewer is a professional who’s interviewing you for a job. Don’t talk to them like they’re a friend or overshare information that’s not related to the job.
  • The interviewer may interrupt your flow to see how you react. If this happens, remain calm and helpful.

[Edit]Related wikiHows


[Edit]Quick Summary

  1. https://www.livecareer.com/resources/interviews/prep/interview-success
  2. https://www.livecareer.com/resources/interviews/prep/interview-success
  3. https://www.inc.com/travis-bradberry/how-to-ace-the-50-most-common-interview-questions.html
  4. https://www.inc.com/travis-bradberry/how-to-ace-the-50-most-common-interview-questions.html
  5. https://www.inc.com/travis-bradberry/how-to-ace-the-50-most-common-interview-questions.html
  6. https://www.livecareer.com/resources/interviews/prep/interview-success
  7. https://www.livecareer.com/resources/interviews/prep/interview-success
  8. https://www.livecareer.com/resources/interviews/prep/interview-success
  9. https://www.forbes.com/sites/erikaandersen/2014/06/03/please-dont-do-these-9-things-in-an-interview/#70ec8a917a34
  10. https://www.livecareer.com/resources/interviews/prep/interview-success
  11. https://www.livecareer.com/resources/interviews/prep/interview-success
  12. https://www.livecareer.com/resources/interviews/prep/interview-success
  13. https://www.livecareer.com/resources/interviews/prep/interview-success
  14. https://www.livecareer.com/resources/interviews/prep/interview-success
  15. https://www.inc.com/travis-bradberry/how-to-ace-the-50-most-common-interview-questions.html
  16. https://www.inc.com/travis-bradberry/how-to-ace-the-50-most-common-interview-questions.html
  17. https://www.inc.com/travis-bradberry/how-to-ace-the-50-most-common-interview-questions.html
  18. https://www.livecareer.com/resources/interviews/prep/interview-success
  19. https://www.forbes.com/sites/erikaandersen/2014/06/03/please-dont-do-these-9-things-in-an-interview/#70ec8a917a34
  20. https://www.inc.com/travis-bradberry/how-to-ace-the-50-most-common-interview-questions.html
  21. https://www.inc.com/jeff-haden/how-to-prepare-for-a-great-job-interview-8-tips.html
  22. https://www.inc.com/jeff-haden/how-to-prepare-for-a-great-job-interview-8-tips.html
  23. https://www.inc.com/jeff-haden/how-to-prepare-for-a-great-job-interview-8-tips.html
  24. https://www.businessinsider.com/how-to-prepare-for-the-second-interview-2018-2

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