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Saturday, 31 August 2019

How to Dress for a Gala

Being invited to a gala is exciting and gives you the opportunity to help raise money for a good cause. However, figuring out what to wear can seem like a daunting task, whether it’s your first gala or your fiftieth. Dressing for a gala can be easy and fun when you follow the dress code and add your own personal style!


[Edit]Choosing Your Outfit (Women)

  1. Wear a LBD if the invitation specifies a semi-formal or cocktail dress code. Dressing for a cocktail party can be confusing, because it’s easy to under- or over-dress, but a little black dress is the perfect solution. When in doubt, select a comfortable and stylish party dress that hits just above the knee in plain black for a classic take. If you want to get more creative, you can choose a dress in a seasonal color.[1]
    Dress for a Gala Step 1 Version 4.jpg
    • If you don’t want to wear a dress, semi-formal events are great for getting creative while still looking fancy. To switch things up, put on a set of classy but colorful separates or a refined jumpsuit.
  2. Opt for a full-length ball gown if the invitation says the event is white tie. Choose a glamorous gown in a seasonal color, or opt for an always-fashionable black gown. Make sure the gown touches the floor, which is expected for white tie events. Go to a specialty dress store or search online, and have the gown tailored to fit you. If you’re on a budget, consider renting a gown for the event, which can be much cheaper.[2]
    Dress for a Gala Step 2 Version 4.jpg
    • Long gloves are common at white tie affairs, and can complement or match your dress color.
    • If you’ve never bought a gown before, look for a shape that complements your body. Pick a size that fits you the best in most areas, and then get the dress tailored to your body shape for the most flattering results.
  3. Choose a classy evening dress if the dress code is black tie. Black tie galas are only slightly less formal than white tie events. Evening gowns that touch the floor are acceptable, but you can look for unique gowns in a variety of colors or with embellishments. Shorter dresses can also be appropriate, as long as they’re fancy.[3]
    Dress for a Gala Step 3 Version 4.jpg
    • When looking for a dress, check specialty stores, the “formal” section of online retailers, and even some department stores. If possible, try on the dress and have it tailored for the best fit.
    • Darker colors are generally more acceptable for a black tie occasion, but you shouldn’t feel confined to navy and blue. Feel free to spice it up if you find a gown that speaks to you.
    • If you opt for a dress that isn’t floor-length, the hem should hit at or just below the knee. If you have any doubts about your dress, don't be afraid to ask the party planner for clarification.
  4. Think outside the box if the dress code on the invitation is creative black tie. Although it’s one of the most vague dress codes, creative black tie will let your imagination run wild. Don a pantsuit, play with wild prints, or amp up your accessories. However, remember that the overall impression should be formal and tasteful.[4]
    Dress for a Gala Step 4 Version 4.jpg
    • If there’s a specific theme, like a Valentine’s Day gala for charity, try to stick to it within reason. This is your chance to show off your creativity and look uniquely fabulous. For example, you might choose to wear a sparkly red dress, or a dress covered in hearts or flowers. You can accessorize creatively by wearing little cherub wings or carrying a toy bow and arrow!

[Edit]Picking Accessories and Grooming (Women)

  1. Select the perfect pair of heels for the venue. While most galas warrant a pair of stilettos, check the invitation to make sure you’ll be able to comfortably walk in the pair that you have in mind. If the venue is outdoors or the flooring is notoriously precarious, opt for a shorter or wider heel for added stability.[5]
    Dress for a Gala Step 5 Version 4.jpg
    • Both open-toe and closed-toe shoes are acceptable, depending on the weather. If you’re unsure about what kind of shoes you should wear, ask the party planner to clarify!
    • Your shoe color should complement the color of your gown. If you’re in doubt, opt for a basic black satin heel that will match most evening gowns.
    • Wearing flatter shoes may make it difficult to walk without tripping on a long hem, so be sure to try on your shoes with your dress and walk around a bit.
    • If you can’t or don’t want to wear heels, choose a pair of glamorous flats that complement your gown without drawing too much attention. Look for pairs that have embellishments like jewels or bows, and are made of high-quality materials like patent leather, leatherette, or even suede.
  2. Choose classic jewelry like pearls, earrings, and bracelets for any gala. Regardless of the dress code, wear tasteful, classic jewelry, like a pair of sparkly earrings or a pearl necklace to draw attention to your face and hair. If your gown doesn’t have many embellishments, wear some silver or gold bracelets to add some glamour to the outfit.[6]
    Dress for a Gala Step 6 Version 4.jpg
    • Make sure your jewelry looks valuable, even if it’s not. Gold, silver, and pearls are all acceptable, even if they’re imitation pieces. If you’re looking for sparkle, cubic zirconia is an inexpensive and beautiful alternative to diamonds.
    • Remember to balance your jewelry. If you’re wearing a very colorful or large statement necklace or bracelet, pair it with smaller earrings or bracelets. Alternatively, you might choose to wear one statement piece and no other jewelry.
  3. Stick to a small purse with just the essentials. Since you’ll be on the move all evening, pack a clutch with lipstick or gloss, face powder, your ID, a small wallet, and your phone. Some clutch purses have a small, delicate shoulder strap that allows you to use your hands throughout the night, as well![7]
    Dress for a Gala Step 7 Version 4.jpg
    • Coordinate the color or fabric of your bag to match your shoes. It will pull your look together and make your choices seem thought-out and purposeful.
    • Leave the shoulder bags and totes at home since they tend to be bulky and burdensome.
  4. Have your hair professionally styled to save time. Your hair is an integral part of your gala look, so it needs to be polished and perfect. A professional stylist will be able to achieve the best style for your gown. If you have a gown with a lot of embellishments on the back or neckline, consider getting an updo to show them off.[8]
    Dress for a Gala Step 8 Version 4.jpg
    • For short hair, make sure it’s sleek and polished. Your hairstyle should look purposeful, even if it’s shorter cut.
  5. Do your hair at home for a less expensive option. Devote time to straightening or curling your hair at home with quality products, like a styling balm and strong hold spray. Then, leave your hair down for an ultra-glamorous look, or pin it into an updo for a more sleek appearance. You can even try to do a simple braid, as long as it looks clean and professional.[9]
    Dress for a Gala Step 9 Version 4.jpg
    • Classic styles like the French twist, chignon, and curled bun are easier to pull off at home. Try watching a YouTube tutorial and doing a trial run about a week before the event. If it doesn’t work, choose a different style and try it out before the event!
  6. Wear makeup with accented eyes or lips. Keep your foundation and blush looking natural, and use concealer to cover any blemishes. Focus on your eyes or lips as the accent for your makeup look, but not both. If you choose a dramatic eye look, keep your lips a natural nude color. If you’re wearing a deep or bright lipstick, use only mascara and eyeliner to accentuate your eyes.[10]
    Dress for a Gala Step 10 Version 5.jpg
    • For a more natural look, try wearing a light foundation, a few swipes of mascara, and a clear lip gloss. This gives a very subtle but professional look, and allows your clothes to be the focal point of your appearance.

[Edit]Selecting Your Outfit (Men)

  1. Wear a full tuxedo with tails for any event with a white tie dress code. White tie galas require a tailed coat, matching trousers, a wing-collared shirt with studs and cufflinks, white waistcoat, and a white bow tie. For shoes, wear black evening pumps with comfortable black socks in a fabric like silk.[11]
    Dress for a Gala Step 11 Version 5.jpg
    • The dress code for men is pretty strict when it comes to white tie events, but you can still accessorize with items like pocket squares, cufflinks, and studs. Show your creativity and unique style wherever possible.
  2. Choose a tux without tails for a black tie dress code. Select a tuxedo with a 1 or 2 button dinner jacket, matching trousers, real bow tie, and cummerbund or waistcoat. For shoes, wear black pumps or oxfords to complete the look.[12]
    Dress for a Gala Step 12 Version 5.jpg
    • Although the dress code is black-tie, you can alter the color of the tie to match your date’s outfit for an added fashion statement.
    • Stick to black or midnight blue for your tuxedo, unless it’s otherwise specified on the invitation. In the case of “black tie optional” events, you can choose other colors or unique fabrics, like velvet.
  3. Put on a classic dark suit if the invitation says semi-formal attire. Although you don’t have to wear a tuxedo, you should still look put together. Wear a white shirt with a well-fitted black, navy, or charcoal suit with a dark tie. Finish out the outfit with classic, shiny oxford shoes.[13]
    Dress for a Gala Step 13 Version 4.jpg
    • If you want to add some intrigue to your outfit, wear a shirt that matches the color of your jacket and trousers.
  4. Try a patterned suit if the invitation says the dress code is creative black tie. For themed events, get creative with your suit fabric by choosing an unconventional color or pattern. Details like embroidery and embellishments can make your out interesting without being too over the top. If you have a date for the event, try to coordinate with their outfit, as well![14]
    Dress for a Gala Step 14 Version 5.jpg
    • You can also stand out with your shoes, the color of your button down shirt, and even your tie.
    • When dressing for a themed event, try to stick to a specific color scheme to avoid looking like your outfit is mismatched!
  5. Have your tuxedo properly fitted before the event. The key to quality menswear for a gala is a good fit. Visit a tailor to have your pants, jacket, and shirt tailored to your body and style. The tailor will make sure your labels, trousers, and overall appearance are exceptional.[15]
    Dress for a Gala Step 15 Version 4.jpg
    • They can also suggest ways to stand out, especially when all of the men are wearing the same general outfit. They might recommend a printed lining for your jacket, unique braiding on the trousers, or an eye-catching pocket square.

[Edit]Grooming and Accessorizing (Men)

  1. Pick the best bow tie for your outfit and face. When it comes to formal events, clip-on bow ties are never acceptable. Look for a sturdy fabric in a color that either complements your tuxedo or your date’s outfit. The edges of the bow should align with the outer corners of your eyes.[16]
    Dress for a Gala Step 16 Version 4.jpg
    • If you’ve never tied a bow tie, now is the time to learn! There are many different styles, but the classic semi-butterfly is the most popular. If you’re having trouble, ask the tailor to help you tie the perfect bow.
  2. Accessorize your look with cufflinks and jewelry. Pick out silver or gold cufflinks with gems or engraving on them. If you have a watch with a metal or leather band, you should wear it to the event. It’ll help with staying on time, and it gives a more professional appearance.[17]
    Dress for a Gala Step 17 Version 4.jpg
    • You can also wear jewelry like small chain necklaces or rings, as long as the metals don’t clash with each other or look gaudy.
  3. Make sure you look clean and polished. A few days before the event, get a haircut and tame any facial hair. Good grooming pulls the outfit together and is important for appearing tasteful. On the day of the event, wear your hair slicked back or styled.[18]
    Dress for a Gala Step 18 Version 3.jpg
    • Remember to trim your fingernails and shape your eyebrows, as well. You can get a manicure and an eyebrow wax at a salon or spa.


  • When in doubt, ask the host or party planner to clarify the dress code for the event. If possible, get their approval on your outfit in advance.
  • If you are on a budget, consider renting a gown or tuxedo instead of buying one.


[Edit]Quick Summary

from How to of the Day https://ift.tt/2MOrMR0
via Peter

How to Make Toys for Dogs

Sure, you can go out and buy all kinds of fancy toys for your dog, but why not try your hand at making them yourself? It’s incredibly easy to make a wide range of toys that can provide your pup with mental stimulation and exercise—all you need are everyday items like tennis balls and socks. You can even make chilled toy-treats for hot summer days!


[Edit]Simple and Inexpensive Toys

  1. Stick a tennis ball into a tube sock. This is about as simple as it gets, but dogs love it! Stuff the tennis ball down into the toe of the sock, then tie off the sock just above the ball.[1]

    • Alternatively, you can stuff the ball down to the heel of the sock and tie knots at both ends of the ball.
    • Don’t use socks that carry your scent, or you may encourage your pup to go rooting through your sock drawer or laundry basket for their next chew toy!
  2. Cut and braid a kitchen towel into a chew rope. Use scissors to cut 2 slits the length of an old kitchen towel, stopping short of one end—you want to end up with 3 towel strands of similar width. Braid these 3 strands one over the other (like you would hair), then knot the loose ends.[2]

    • Try a washcloth for a really small dog, or a bath towel for a very big dog.
  3. Make a crinkly toy with a sock and a plastic bottle. Use a clean, empty plastic water or soda bottle and discard the lid and plastic ring. Crush the air out by hand, then place the bottle in the sock and tie it off just above the bottle.[3]

    • Many dogs go wild for the crinkling sound this toy makes!
  4. Create a great chew toy with a tennis ball and old rope. Grab an old piece of sturdy rope that’s about long. Drill holes into opposite sides of a tennis ball that are just big enough to feed the rope through. Thread the ball to the middle of the rope, then tie knots in the rope to secure the ball in place.[4]

    • Instead of drilling into the ball while you’re holding it in your hand, secure the ball in a clamp so you can keep your free hand safely away from the drill bit.
  5. Empty out a stuffed animal and sew it back up. While some dogs like stuffed toys they can squish their teeth into, others prefer floppier toys they can gnaw on and thrash around. Simply cut the stuffed animal open at a seam, pull out the stuffing, and sew it back up—then see what your dog thinks![5]

    • Don’t use stuffed animals with buttons or other small pieces that could become choking hazards.

[Edit]Mental Stimulation Toys

  1. Stuff treats into a plastic milk jug. Discard the milk jug’s cap, plastic ring, and label. Then, pick out a treat your dog likes and that just barely fits through the jug’s opening, and stuff up to a dozen inside. Your dog will work overtime to get every last treat out of the jug![6]

    • For smaller dogs, a plastic juice bottle will work as well.
  2. Sew a “kangaroo pouch” onto a favorite stuffed animal. Choose a stuffed animal that your dog really likes, get a separate piece of fabric and cut out a square, and sew 3 sides of the square onto the toy to create a pouch. Make the pouch just big enough to fit your pup’s favorite treat inside.[7]

    • Your dog will use their mouth, paws, and whatever else they can to work the treat out of the pouch!
  3. Turn a tennis ball into a treat-dispensing puzzle. Use a serrated knife to cut a slit in the tennis ball along one of its seams. Squeeze the sides of the ball to open the slit like a mouth, then fill the ball with kibble. Then, let your dog figure out how to get the ball to “open its mouth” and dispense the treats![8]

    • When cutting the ball, protect your free hand with a thick glove or, better yet, secure the ball in a clamp.
  4. Hide treats in a muffin tin covered with tennis balls. Grab an old muffin tin with 6 or 12 cups in it. Put a treat in half of the cups, then cover every cup with a tennis ball. Your dog will work to figure out how to uncover the cups, and which cups contain the prize.[9]

    • Switch up where you place the treats every time you present this puzzle.
  5. Make a sweet potato rope toy. Cut a sweet potato into slices, cut a hole in the center of each slice, and bake them at for 5 hours to dehydrate them. Then, thread the dehydrated rings onto an section of rope and knot the rope at each end.[10]

    • Your dog will have to work hard to free the rings from the rope, but they make a tasty reward!
  6. Build a treat tube out of PVC pipe. Cut a section of PVC pipe and drill a series of small holes along its length. Use sandpaper to remove any burrs or shards of PVC. Then, stick treats into the pipe and place PVC end caps over each end of the pipe.[11]

    • Your dog will roll, carry, and bash the pipe around until they figure out how to work the cap off the end and release their treats!

[Edit]Frozen Toys for Hot Days

  1. Make dog treat “pupsicles” you can use in a toy. Fill an ice cube tray with a mixture of half water and half chicken or beef broth. Freeze the liquid until it’s slushy, then place a bone-shaped dog treat or half of a rawhide chew stick into each cube so they stand upright. Freeze the liquid solid, then pop the treats out and serve them up.[12]

    • For big dogs, fill disposable plastic cups with the water-broth mix and add a whole rawhide chew stick.
    • You can hand these “pupsicles” out as treats on a hot day, or add them to puzzles to turn them into a toy!
  2. Put the “pupsicles” in your chosen food puzzle. For example, you can stick several of them in a lid-free milk jug or large plastic juice bottle. Or, slide them into a length of PVC pipe with small holes drilled in the sides and PVC end caps on each end. Either way, your pup will have to work to get their frozen treat![13]

    • If it’s scorching hot outside, just give them the treat without all the extra work!
  3. Freeze a knot of socks for the simplest frozen toy option. Ball up one tube sock, then stuff it into the other sock. Tie off the outer sock with a double knot. Soak the sock ball under the faucet, then put it in the freezer until it’s rock solid. After that, give it to your dog on a steamy summer day![14]

    Make Toys for Dogs Step 14.jpg
    • While it’s tempting to use your old socks for toys like this, it’s best to use fabrics that don’t carry your scent. You don’t want your dog getting used to chewing up your clothes!


  • Don't give the water bottle toy to large dogs, especially those who love to chew. They can chew through the sock and water bottle and potentially digest some of the plastic.


[Edit]Quick Summary

from How to of the Day https://ift.tt/2ZDDcc3
via Peter

How to Study Harder

If you're worried about your grades or academic success, you can work on improving your study skills. Studying harder can help improve grades and test scores. Create a study schedule, use good studying strategies, and focus on working hard in class. If you study effectively, you won't have to spend every waking moment studying to do better in school.


[Edit]Creating a Study Ritual

  1. Create a good study space. The first step to studying harder is to create a study space for yourself. Studying in the same space each day is effective because your mind will learn to associate a particular space with work. It'll be easier to get into the flow of studying when entering your study space.
    Study Harder Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • Students who spend time struggling to find a space to study often waste valuable time. Having a space you go every day to study is helpful.[1]
    • Choose a study space that is free of distractions. Find a space away from television and other noises. You should not study in bed or on the couch. Choose a place with a desk where you can sit upright to work.[2]
    • Make sure the space is set up for what you need. If you need to prepare a class project with lots of small pieces that must be arranged, a large, uncluttered space with a worktable will be best. If you just need to read your textbook, a cozy chair and a cup of tea may be just fine.
  2. Stick to a study schedule. Once you've found a great space to study, create a study schedule for yourself. Having a regular study sessions will help you avoid procrastination and stick to your goals as a students. You should start planning your study schedule as you get your course syllabus -- that way, nothing will sneak up on you.
    Study Harder Step 2 Version 2.jpg
    • You should strive to prioritize studying. Place study time ahead of extracurricular or social activities. Try to study shortly after class or school each day.[3]
    • Schedule study sessions at roughly the same time each day. Having a regular schedule can help you stick to studying on a regular basis. Put these sessions into your calendar, just as you would a dentist appointment or soccer practice.[4]
    • Start slow. At first, keep your study sessions between 30 and 50 minutes. After you've gotten used to this duration, push yourself to study for longer periods. However, stop to take short breaks occasionally. Studying for hours on end can cause stress. Take 10 minute breaks as you study.[5] Don't go longer than 2 hours without a break.
  3. Have specific goals for each study schedule. Studying without direction is not an effective way to learn and retain information. Go into each study session with specific goals in mind to try and make the most out of your study session.
    Study Harder Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • Keep your overall academic goal in mind. Branching off of that goal, break it down into manageable chunks and focus on each chunk per session.[6]
    • For example, say you have to memorize 100 vocabulary words for your Spanish final. Aim to memorize 20 words per session over the course of 5 study sessions. Make sure to review old words at the beginning of each new study session to make sure the information stays fresh in your mind.[7]

[Edit]Practicing Good Study Habits

  1. Test yourself. A vital part of studying is repetition. Test yourself on difficult material during each study session. Make flashcards with vocabulary words, dates, and other facts. Use these to test your knowledge. If you have a math exam, do practice tests in your math book. If your teacher or professor provides practice exams, take as many as possible.
    Study Harder Step 4.jpg
    • Try to make your own practice tests. Review the types of question your teacher asked on quizzes and try to replicate them in your own words. Make a test for yourself, containing 10 to 20 questions, and then complete the test.
    • If your teacher provides practice tests to help you study, take them home and do them on your own time.
    • Start well ahead of time and bring in your practice test to show your teacher. Ask her something like, "I've gone through my notes and made this practice exam to help me study for the test next week. Could you tell me if it's on the right track?" Your teacher isn't likely to tell you whether or not specific things will be on the test, but she will probably be happy to tell you whether you're studying the right areas. And your hard work and preparation are sure to impress!
  2. Start with the hardest subjects. The most difficult subjects require the most mental energy. Start with this work first. After completing harder materials, studying easier subjects will feel a lot less stressful.[8]
    Study Harder Step 5.jpg
  3. Use study groups effectively. Study groups can be a great way to maximize your studying experience. However, keep in mind that you need to use study groups effectively in order for them to have the best effect.
    Study Harder Step 6.jpg
    • You should structure study groups as you would an individual study session. Choose which materials to focus on and have set timeframes and breaks. It's easy to get distracted if you're working with groups of people. A schedule can help you stay on task.[9]
    • Work with people who you know are hard workers. Even the best planned study groups can fall apart if you choose to work with people who are distracting and procrastinate.
  4. Seek out help when you need it. Remember, there's no shame in asking for help if you need it. If you are continually struggling with a particular subject despite diligent studying, seek out help from another student, a tutor, a teacher, or a parent. If you're a college student, there might be free tutoring centers on campus dedicated to helping students with a particular subject like writing, language, or math.[10]
    Study Harder Step 7.jpg
  5. Take breaks and give yourself rewards. As studying is seen as a chore, allowing yourself breaks and rewards can help motivate you to study harder. Take breaks every hour or so to stretch your legs, watch television, surf the internet, or do some light reading. Provide rewards at the end of study sessions to motivate yourself to work harder. For example, if you study 3 days in a row treat yourself by ordering take out.[11]
    Study Harder Step 8.jpg

[Edit]Studying Smarter

  1. Prepare your body and mind before studying. If you go straight from school to studying, you may feel burnt out and struggle to concentrate. Taking half an hour to prepare your mind and body for a study session can help you study more effectively.
    Study Harder Step 9.jpg
    • Go for a short walk before beginning to study. Stretching by walking can help your body loosen up and clear your mind in preparation of studying.[12]
    • If you're hungry, eat before studying but stick to a light snack or a small meal. Eating a heavy meal before studying can result in sleepiness. This can make it difficult to concentrate on studying.[13]
  2. Study with the right mindset. The mindset you have going into studying can affect the effectiveness of your study session. Work on fostering a positive mindset going into each study session.
    Study Harder Step 10.jpg
    • Think positively when you study. Remind yourself that you are building new skills and abilities. Do not get discouraged if you struggle with something. Remind yourself you're studying because you need to improve so it's okay if you don't understand some material.[14]
    • Do not engage in catastrophic or absolute thinking. Catastrophic thoughts include things like, "If I don't get this now, I never will." Absolute thoughts are things like, "I always do poorly on these exams." Instead, try to be realistic. Think to yourself, "I'm struggling with this information at the moment, but if I'm persistent I'm sure it will come to me."[15]
    • Do not compare yourself to others. You're focused on doing well on this assignment for yourself. Other people's success or failure should not matter.[16]
  3. Use memory games. Memory games, always known as mnemonic devices, are a means of remembering information by creating associations. They can be extremely helpful when it comes to smart studying.
    Study Harder Step 11.jpg
    • Many people remember subjects by stringing words together to form sentences, the first letter of each word signifying part of a topic that requires memorization. For example, the sentence "Kings play cards on fat green stools" can be used to help remember the taxonomy ranking for animals: kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.[17]
    • Make sure you use mnemonic devices that are easy to remember. If you're creating your own mnemonic device, pick words and sentences that have personal meaning to you and that you will easily remember later.[18]
  4. Rewrite your notes. If you have notes, rewrite them. Rewriting the notes you have, changing the wording slightly, helps you actively engage with the material. You're not just repeating information but trying to explain it over and over again. This can help you process information and more easily remember it later on.[19]
    Study Harder Step 12.jpg
    • Don't just copy out the material over and over again. Instead, try to condense it to the most basic points. Then, try to condense it again, until you have gotten to the most essential points.

[Edit]Taking Advantage of Class Time

  1. Take good notes. Creating the proper resources for studying can help you. While you're in class, try to take good notes. These can serve as a valuable resource later on when you're studying.
    Study Harder Step 13.jpg
    • Organize your notes by date and subject. Write the date on the top corner of the page at the beginning of class. Then, write headings and subheadings regarding the subject being taught. If you're searching for notes on a particular subject, it'll be easier to find later.[20]
    • Use your best handwriting. You want to make sure you can read your notes later on.[21]
    • Compare notes with other classmates. If you missed one class session or missed a few words here and there when taking notes, another classmate can help you fill in what you missed.[22]
  2. Read actively. When reading material for class, make sure you read actively. How you read can affect how well you retain information later on.
    Study Harder Step 14.jpg
    • Pay attention to chapter titles and subheadings. These often offer clues as to the main point of a text. It indicates what material you should pay closest attention to while reading.[23]
    • You should also reread the first sentence of each paragraph once. This sentence usually offers a summary of key information you'll need. Pay attention to concluding sections as well, as they summarize key materials.[24]
    • If permitted, underline passages and write notes in margins summarizing key points. This can help you find important information later when studying.[25]
  3. Ask questions. If you're confused about anything in class, ask questions. Usually, teachers will allow time for questions after class. You can also ask to stop by a students office hours to ask about topics that confuse you.[26]
    Study Harder Step 15.jpg
    • Do yourself a favor and make it a habit to visit your teacher's office hours starting at the beginning of the semester. Waiting to ask questions until the day before the test makes it seem like you haven't been preparing. Making a habit of dropping in once a week or so encourages your teacher to see you as a student who works hard and prepares in advance -- she'll be more likely to want to help you.


[Edit]Quick Summary

  1. http://www.educationcorner.com/effective-time-management.html
  2. http://www.wgu.edu/blogpost/improve-online-study-environment
  3. http://www.educationcorner.com/effective-time-management.html
  4. http://www.educationcorner.com/effective-time-management.html
  5. http://www.rasmussen.edu/student-life/blogs/college-life/how-to-study/
  6. http://www.educationcorner.com/habits-of-successful-students.html
  7. http://www.educationcorner.com/habits-of-successful-students.html
  8. http://www.educationcorner.com/habits-of-successful-students.html
  9. http://www.educationcorner.com/habits-of-successful-students.html
  10. http://www.educationcorner.com/effective-time-management.html
  11. http://psychcentral.com/lib/top-10-most-effective-study-habits/2/
  12. http://www.developgoodhabits.com/good-study-routine/
  13. http://www.developgoodhabits.com/good-study-routine/
  14. http://psychcentral.com/lib/top-10-most-effective-study-habits/
  15. http://psychcentral.com/lib/top-10-most-effective-study-habits/
  16. http://psychcentral.com/lib/top-10-most-effective-study-habits/
  17. http://psychcentral.com/lib/top-10-most-effective-study-habits/2/
  18. http://psychcentral.com/lib/top-10-most-effective-study-habits/2/
  19. http://psychcentral.com/lib/top-10-most-effective-study-habits/2/
  20. http://www.educationcorner.com/note-taking.html
  21. http://www.educationcorner.com/note-taking.html
  22. http://www.educationcorner.com/note-taking.html
  23. http://www.educationcorner.com/reading-comprehension.html
  24. http://www.educationcorner.com/reading-comprehension.html
  25. http://www.educationcorner.com/reading-comprehension.html
  26. http://users.clas.ufl.edu/ufhatch/pages/02-TeachingResources/study/

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Friday, 30 August 2019

How to Dry Apples in the Oven

Drying apples is a good way to preserve them for use in your favorite recipes later on down the road. It’s also the secret to making apple chips, which are a tasty snack in their own right. No matter how you intend to use them, drying apples at home couldn't be easier—all you need is an oven and a couple of hours. Just slice your washed, cored apples into rings and stick them in a preheated oven for 2-3 hours. When they come out, they’ll be delicate, crunchy, and oh-so-sweet.


  • 1-2 apples (washed, cored, and sliced)
  • water
  • lemon juice
  • Cinnamon, nutmeg, apple pie spice, or other seasonings (optional—to taste)

*Makes approximately 20-50 slices*


[Edit]Slicing Your Apples

  1. Preheat your oven to around . Before you get started, turn on your oven to its lowest heat setting. That way, you can wash, core, and slice your apples while the oven is warming up. Once the oven reaches the desired temperature, all you’ll have to do is pop in the apples and set a timer.[1]
    Dry Apples in the Oven Step 1.jpg
    • Feel free to use a lower heat setting, if your oven has one. Some ovens go as low as .[2]
    • Low, even heat tends to be best for drying, as it prevents food from burning. Keep in mind, however, that it can take considerably longer for your apples to dry fully at lower temperatures.
  2. Line 1-2 large baking sheets with parchment paper. Overlap the individual pieces of parchment paper to make sure that the bottom of the baking sheet is completely covered. The parchment paper will prevent your apples from sticking to the baking sheets as the sugars in them heat up.[3]

    • You may need to grab an additional baking sheet if you’re going to be preparing more than 1 or 2 apples at a time.
  3. Wash your apples thoroughly. Run the apples under a stream of cool water. Use your fingers to gently rub off any stubborn dirt or traces of waxy coating. When you’re done, shake off the excess water and pat the apples dry with a clean cloth or paper towel.[4]

    • If you’re planning on drying lots of apples, it may be faster to wash them all at once in a colander or wire strainer.
  4. Core and slice your apples into slices. Cut the core out of your apples neatly using an apple corer or paring knife. Then, run the top of each apple back and forth over the blade of mandoline to reduce them to slices of a uniform thickness.[5]

    • If you don’t have a mandoline, simply use a sharp knife with a long blade to cut the apples as thin as possible.[6]
    • When drying apple slices, it’s easiest to cut them into rings rather than wedges or other shapes.
  5. Dip your apple slices in a mixture of water and lemon juice. Combine of water and of lemon juice in a small mixing bowl and stir well. Dunk the slices in the solution for a few seconds, then remove them and set them aside on a layer of folded paper towels and press them dry.[7]

    • It's important to dilute your lemon juice. The natural citric acid will keep your apples from becoming brown and mushy while they’re in the oven, but too much can actually have the opposite effect.[8]
    • This step is entirely optional. A little browning shouldn’t affect the taste of your dried apples.
  6. Arrange the slices on your lined baking sheets in a single even layer. Try to leave at least of space between each slice. This will allow more warm air to circulate between them, cutting down on their overall drying time and ensuring a more consistent texture.[9]

    Dry Apples in the Oven Step 6.jpg
    • If you like, you can dust your apple slices with a light coating of cinnamon, nutmeg, or blended apple pie spice before putting them in the oven to give them even more flavor.[10]

[Edit]Heating Your Apples

  1. Bake the apple slices for 1 hour. Set a timer to help you keep track of how long they’ve been in the oven. After about an hour, the edges of the rings will begin to curl slightly, and the peel on the outside will take on a darker color.[11]

    Dry Apples in the Oven Step 7.jpg
    • If your oven doesn’t have a built-in timer, use a separate kitchen timer or set an alarm on your phone to alert you when your apples are finished heating on their first side.
    • Leave the door of the oven propped open just a hint while your apples are baking. Doing so will improve the air circulation inside and help moisture escape.[12]
  2. Turn the slices over. Using an oven mitt or pot holder, reach into the oven and carefully remove the baking sheet. Flip each slice over with a fork or pair of tongs, then slide the baking sheet back into the oven.[13]

    • If you don’t turn your slices, they could come out more done on one side than the other.
  3. Continue baking for an additional 1-3 hours. From here on out, it’s best to simply keep an eye on your apples rather than resetting your timer. Try to check them every half hour or so to see how they're coming along. You’ll want to take them out once they begin to turn a golden-brown color around the edges.[14]

    • Drying times will vary depending on the exact thickness of your slices, as well as the natural moisture content of the variety of apples you’re working with.
    • In some cases, it may take as long as 5-8 hours for your apple slices to dry out completely. This is especially likely if you have your oven set to a temperature lower than .[15]
    • There's no need to turn your apple slices again once they go back in the oven for the second time, unless they start to get too brown on the bottom.
  4. Turn off your oven and allow your apple slices to cool inside. Let your slices sit until both them and the oven have returned to room temperature. This shouldn't take any longer than about half an hour. Allowing your apples to cool will make them safer to handle while also giving any lingering moisture a chance to evaporate.[16]

    • To determine whether your apples are done, take one out after they’ve had a chance to cool and tear it in half. It should be dry and leathery on the outside and slightly spongy on the inside.[17]
    • If you think your slices need a little longer, preheat the oven again and place them back inside for 30 minutes at a time.
  5. Store your apple slices in a cool, dry, dark place. Once you’re satisfied that your apples are sufficiently dried, transfer them to a plastic zipper bag, lidded storage container, or mason jar. As long as you keep them off-limits to heat and moisture, they should last for weeks, if not months.[18]

    Dry Apples in the Oven Step 11.jpg
    • Consider setting aside a few slices as soon as you take them out of the oven. Many people think that dried apples are best while they’re still fresh and warm.[19]
    • If you’re worried about your apples going bad, stash them in the freezer. There, they’ll keep for 6 months to a year (or longer)!


  • Drying apples in the oven is much cheaper than investing in an expensive dehydrator, much less work than drying them in a wood stove or microwave, and much faster than drying them naturally in the sun.
  • Enjoy your dried apples on their own as a healthy snack, or make them part of a nutritious packed lunch.
  • Try chopping your dried apples into small pieces and adding them to oatmeal, yogurt, or homemade trail mix.

[Edit]Things You’ll Need

[Edit]Slicing Your Apples

  • Mandoline or sharp knife
  • Small mixing bowl
  • Clean cloth or paper towel
  • Colander or wire strainer (optional)
  • Apple corer (optional)
  • Paring knife (optional)

[Edit]Baking Your Apples

  • Oven
  • Large baking sheet
  • Parchment paper
  • Oven mitt
  • Fork or tongs
  • Plastic zipper bag, lidded storage container, mason jar, or other airtight container


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How to Treat Bad Breath

Bad breath is an issue that everyone experiences from time to time. In most cases, it's nothing serious and can be cured by brushing your teeth or taking a breath mint. Certain lifestyle changes like smoking less, good oral hygiene, and improving your hydration can also clear up chronic bad breath. In a small number of cases halitosis, or chronic bad breath, is caused by serious medical issues including diabetes, respiratory tract or sinus infections, H. pylori, SIBO, or liver and kidney disease.[1] In these cases, you'll need to work with your doctor to treat the underlying condition causing your bad breath.


[Edit]Stopping Bad Breath Immediately

  1. Brush your teeth to clear up most cases of bad breath. Brushing your teeth will keep your mouth healthy and smelling great. Brush for at least 2 minutes each time, in order to remove odor-causing bacteria from your tongue and the inside of your mouth. Brush your teeth at least twice a day and also whenever you notice that your breath smells a little off.[2]
    Treat Bad Breath Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • When brushing your teeth, don't forget to brush your tongue! Brushing your tongue cleans off old food and bacteria that may be causing the majority of the unpleasant smells coming from your mouth.
    • If you find that your bad breath persists after brushing and flossing, try using a tongue scraper after brushing your teeth in the morning and at night. Tongue scrapers remove tough food particles and bacteria from your tongue and improve the smell of your breath.[3] Purchase a tongue scraper at a local drugstore.
  2. Take a sugar-free breath mint to clear up bad breath within 30 seconds. If you're worried about bad breath during the day, carry some sugar-free mints around with you. If your breath needs freshening, pop one in! For the best effect and the freshest breath, use mints with a relatively mild scent like peppermint or wintermint.[4]
    Treat Bad Breath Step 2 Version 2.jpg
    • While breath mints and gum work quickly, they're only a temporary solution to having bad breath. After you've taken a breath mint, your bad breath may return within 30-60 minutes.
  3. Try chewing sugar-free gum to hydrate and freshen your mouth. Popping a piece of mint-flavored chewing gum into your mouth is a quick, easy way to improve and freshen up your breath for a few hours. The scent from the chewing gum masks unpleasant breath odors, and the chewing will also hydrate your mouth. This will, in effect, rinse off your tongue and sweep odor-causing bacteria down your throat.[5]
    Treat Bad Breath Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • Since most people don't brush their teeth after chewing gum, opt for a sugar-free variety. Sugar-free gum will freshen up your breath just as well as sugar gum, but won't leave a sugary residue on your teeth for the rest of the day.
  4. Gargle a cap full of mouthwash to freshen your mouth. Mouthwash is a great way to quickly freshen up your mouth before you step out for a date, dinner, or a social event. Fill the cap of the mouthwash container with the liquid and gargle it for 20-30 seconds. Then spit it out and rinse out the mouthwash from your mouth with a mouthful of tap water.[6]
    Treat Bad Breath Step 4 Version 2.jpg
    • Like gum and mints, mouthwash is only a temporary fix to bad breath. Also, using mouthwash more than 1-2 times per day can actually worsen your breath by agitating the tissue within your mouth and drying out your oral cavity.
    • You may also consider trying oil pulling as a way to rinse your teeth and prevent bad breath. Swish of coconut or sesame oil in your mouth for about 10 minutes, and then spit out the oil.[7]
  5. Clean your dentures every night to remove any bad smells. If you wear dentures, remove them each night before you go to bed. Use lukewarm tap water and hand soap to scrub your dentures and remove any buildups of bacteria and plaque. If you neglect to clean your dentures, they’ll start to smell within a few days and can lead to bad breath.[8]
    Treat Bad Breath Step 5 Version 2.jpg
    • Instead of soap and water, you can also use a denture-cleaning pad or denture cream to clean the dentures.

[Edit]Making Lifestyle Changes to Reduce Bad Breath

  1. Stay hydrated to keep your mouth smelling fresh. Many cases of bad breath are caused by a dry mouth, which allows bacteria to flourish. Avoid this by drinking plenty of water throughout the day to keep your mouth wet and fresh smelling. Stay away from fluids that dehydrate you, like coffee, alcohol, and colas, which can actually worsen your bad breath.[9]
    Treat Bad Breath Step 6 Version 2.jpg
    • To keep hydrated, adult men should drink at least of water a day. Adult women should drink at least of water a day.
    • Some prescription medications can also cause you to have a dry mouth. If you’re not sure whether a medication you’re on dries out your mouth, ask your doctor.
  2. Floss daily to remove food particles that can cause bad breath. Brushing your teeth only cleans about 60% of the surface of your teeth, leaving 40% still dirty. Over time, the plaque and bacteria on these dirty surfaces of your teeth can start to smell bad, giving you potent breath. Prevent this potential bad breath by flossing daily.[10]
    Treat Bad Breath Step 7.jpg
    • You’ll be most likely to remember to floss if you do it at a consistent time day after day. For example, floss right after dinner each night.
  3. Stop smoking to improve the smell of your breath. Not only are cigarettes (and other forms of tobacco) bad for your health, but they give smokers chronic bad breath. Smoking also dries out your mouth (similarly to alcohol), and allows foul-smelling bacteria to build up in the oral cavity.[11]
    Treat Bad Breath Step 8.jpg
    • Even if you don’t smoke cigarettes, other types of smoking can lead to bad breath. Smoking cigars, vaping, and smoking marijuana can all cause bad-smelling breath.
  4. Cut back on the amount of alcohol you drink to decrease bad breath. Drinking alcohol alters the balance of bacteria in your mouth, leading to frequent bad breath. All types of alcohol (but especially hard liquors like whiskey and vodka) also dry out your mouth and lead to stale-smelling breath. So, if you’re a drinker and you find yourself with frequent bad breath, cut back on the alcohol consumption.[12]
    Treat Bad Breath Step 9.jpg
    • In order to be considered a moderate drinker, men under 65 should have no more than 2 drinks a day. Women of all ages and men over 65 should have no more than 1 drink a day.[13]
  5. Take a daily probiotic supplement. Taking probiotics may help with bad breath, so it’s something to consider. Look for a probiotic that contains lactobacilli.[14]
    Treat Bad Breath Step 10.jpg
    • Ask your healthcare provider for recommendations on probiotic supplements if you are unsure what probiotic to choose.[15]
  6. Reduce your intake of processed foods in favor of whole foods. Eating lots of processed foods and foods that are loaded with added sugar may make bad breath worse. However, getting most of your nutrients from whole foods, such as fruits and veggies, may help to improve bad breath. Cut back on the amount of processed foods and added sugars you consume and incorporate more fresh fruits and vegetables.
    Treat Bad Breath Step 11.jpg
    • Try drinking fresh fruits vegetable smoothies.
    • Consider a detox diet to help eliminate unhealthy foods from your diet.
  7. Snack on fresh, crispy fruit and veggies as part of a daily diet. Snacking on crispy and liquid-rich veggies and fruits is a great way to freshen your mouth. They prevent bad breath by removing food particles and bacteria from your tongue and the roof of your mouth. Eating these foods as a snack between meals can also prevent foul-smelling stomach acids from making your breath smell.[16] Before lunch or after dinner, eat 4-5 pieces of foods like:
    Treat Bad Breath Step 12.jpg
    • Apple slices
    • Celery sticks
    • Carrot sticks
    • Bell peppers

[Edit]Treating Medically-Caused Halitosis

  1. See a dentist 1–2 times every year for a general cleaning. Regular dental checkups and cleanings are crucial to maintaining strong, healthy teeth. Your dentist can identify and stop issues that cause bad breath, like cavities and tooth decay. General cleanings can also help prevent bad breath by keeping your teeth and gums free from odorous bacteria. If you notice that you have bad breath that isn’t fixed by a mint or brushing your teeth, bring the issue up to your dentist.[17]
    Treat Bad Breath Step 13.jpg
    • If your dentist sees any medical issues that may lead to bad breath—e.g., receding gums—they can point it out to you before the problem becomes severe.
  2. Visit your dentist if you suspect you have gum disease. Gum disease causes your gums to pull back from your teeth. A side effect of gum disease is that bacteria can build up in the pockets between your receding gums and your teeth. This typically results in extreme and chronic bad breath. If you notice your gums receding and can’t seem to get rid of your bad breath, visit your dentist and ask about gum disease.[18]
    Treat Bad Breath Step 14.jpg
    • If you do have gum disease, your dentist will be able to scrape the odor-causing bacteria out of the pockets between your gums and teeth.
    • If your gum disease is advanced or if you need surgery, your dentist may refer you to a periodontist (gum specialist).
  3. See your doctor if nose or throat pain accompany your bad breath. In some situations, sinus infection or inflammation can cause bad breath, as can general inflammation of soft tissue in your nose and throat. As bacteria build up in these kinds of infection, they’ll cause noticeably bad breath that won’t be treated through dental care or hydration.[19]
    Treat Bad Breath Step 15.jpg
    • Bacteria-covered tonsil stones can also produce bad breath. While these are uncommon, it’s worth asking your doctor to check your tonsils if you can’t determine the cause of your bad breath.
    • Your general practitioner may refer you to an ENT specialist to treat severe infections.
  4. Tell your doctor if stomach pain accompanies your bad breath. Certain stomach and intestinal conditions can produce halitosis. For example, if an unhealthy level of the bacteria H. pylori has built up in your stomach, it may be causing your chronic bad breath. Similarly, stomach ulcers and various stomach reflux diseases can cause foul-smelling breath.[20]
    Treat Bad Breath Step 16.jpg
    • Some of these stomach and intestinal medical conditions can be treated with prescription medications. For harder-to-treat conditions, your doctor may refer you to a gastroenterologist.


  • If you're going to be away from quick breath-fresheners like gum and mints, avoid eating potent foods like onion, garlic, and fish. These food items are notorious for giving people bad breath.[21]

[Edit]Related wikiHows


[Edit]Quick Summary

  1. https://www.verywellhealth.com/home-remedies-for-bad-breath-89268
  2. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bad-breath/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350925
  3. https://www.verywellhealth.com/home-remedies-for-bad-breath-89268
  4. https://www.deltadentalins.com/oral_health/fighting-bad-breath.html
  5. https://www.deltadentalins.com/oral_health/fighting-bad-breath.html
  6. https://www.deltadentalins.com/oral_health/fighting-bad-breath.html
  7. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21911944
  8. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/bad-breath/treatment/
  9. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bad-breath/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350925
  10. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/166636.php
  11. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/166636.php
  12. https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/beer-breath-drinking-alcohol-may-give-you-more-bad-breath-n868391
  13. https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/nutrition-and-healthy-eating/in-depth/alcohol/art-20044551
  14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3412664/
  15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20659698
  16. https://www.deltadentalins.com/oral_health/fighting-bad-breath.html
  17. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bad-breath/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350925
  18. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bad-breath/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20350925
  19. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/166636.php
  20. https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/bad-breath/treatment/
  21. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/166636.php

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