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Saturday, 25 June 2022

How to Prune a Jade Plant

The jade plant, also commonly called the money plant, is a popular, low-maintenance succulent—it doesn’t require much water and thrives with minimal attention. Because jade plants can live for many years, plant lovers need to know how to maintain their plants. To keep your jade plant healthy and encourage new growth, prune overgrown sections and remove leggy branches.


[Edit]Encouraging New Growth

  1. Trim the jade plant when branches start to droop. Because the jade plant is top-heavy and stores water in its leaves, branches that aren’t thick enough won’t be able to support the weight of the leaves. Pruning those branches develops thicker, stronger stems, which lets your plant grow taller and wider.[1]
    Prune a Jade Plant Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • Don’t prune young plants (under 1 year old). They are still developing their roots and trunk during the first year, and pruning them too soon will permanently stunt their growth.[2]
  2. Prune the branches and stems in the spring or early summer. Jade plants can technically be pruned all year long, but they actively grow in warm weather. The sunlight and warmth help them to recover more quickly from the pruning.[3]
    Prune a Jade Plant Step 2 Version 2.jpg
    • Your jade plant only needs 3-5 hours of sunlight every day. Keep it somewhere it gets sunlight but avoid placing it in direct light for long periods of time, as this could burn your plant.[4]
  3. Use sharp shears or bonsai pruning shears to make your cuts. Prune back branches that are drooping by clipping the branch where it intersects with the trunk. Or if you are mainly looking to shape your jade plant, prune individual leaves or partial sections of branches. Cut just above the leaf node (where the leaf grows out of the branch).[5]
    Prune a Jade Plant Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • Avoid cutting the main branch (or trunk) of the plant. This is the main section that connects to the roots. The only time you will cut this main truck is when you are cutting down most of the plant to help it heal from infection.
    • Give branches enough space so they aren’t touching or rubbing each other. Overcrowding limits the amount of light the plant gets.[6]
    • A compact and full jade plant is a healthy jade plant—it will regenerate and thrive when you prune it.

[Edit]Cleaning up a Neglected Plant

  1. Trim leggy or drooping branches. If your jade plant has grown for a long time without pruning, it will resemble an overgrown bush. These leggy sections aren’t healthy and are draining resources from the rest of the plant. Use your shears to cut the leggy stems back to 1/3 of their length, cutting at a 45-degree angle.[7]
    Prune a Jade Plant Step 4 Version 2.jpg
    • Leggy sections are thin and longer than other branches.
    • Yellow or light green leaves indicate your plant is overtaxed. Removing them will refocus energy so it can grow in a fuller pattern.[8]
  2. Use shears to cut excess branches back to the trunk of the plant. When a plant has been left to grow for too long, there will be multiple branches shooting off from the main trunk. Some of these are okay to leave, but remove any that are making the plant look scraggly.[9]
    Prune a Jade Plant Step 5 Version 2.jpg
    • The intersection of the branch and the stem makes a “V” shape. Cut at that intersection at a roughly 45-degree angle. This lets the plant sprout multiple new branches that are thicker and more compact.[10]
    • It might feel backwards to cut off entire branches of the plant, but by doing so you’re making room for new growth and are giving your plant a chance to grow stronger.
  3. Cut off any leaves or branches that have dark spots. Dark spots indicate your plant either has a disease or there are pests present. Left untreated, these dark spots can spread to the rest of the plant. Pruning the entire section is the best chance you have to save it.[11]
    Prune a Jade Plant Step 6 Version 2.jpg
    • Try sanitizing your shears with an antibacterial gel in between snips to minimize the risk of spreading disease to healthy parts of the plant.[12]


  • Rather than throwing away your pruned leaves and branches, you can propagate new jade plants from them.[13]
  • Jade plants grow vigorously after pruning, so don’t be afraid to trim away! You can even prune all the leaves and branches so just the main trunk and roots are left, and it will regrow.[14]
  • Make sure your garden shears are very sharp, as blunt shears can damage your plant and introduce infection.[15]


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Friday, 24 June 2022

How to Make Rice Cakes

It's all too common to find yourself with leftover rice and no plan as to what to do with it. Luckily, it's easy to transform old rice into yummy rice cakes! These aren't quite like the standard puffed rice cakes from the grocery store, because they won't taste like styrofoam. There are several variations of homemade rice cakes that are all delicious in their own way, including simple fried sticky rice cakes and savory cheesy rice cakes.


[Edit]Sticky Rice Cakes

  • Cooked sticky rice (as much as you want)
  • olive oil

[Edit]Cheesy Rice Cakes

  • 200 g (1 cup) cooked rice
  • 1 egg
  • 1/2 of a small onion, chopped (optional)
  • minced garlic (optional)
  • red pepper flakes (optional)
  • onion powder (optional)
  • parsley flakes (optional)
  • 14.79 to (1-2 tbsp) of olive oil


[Edit]Frying Sticky Rice Cakes

  1. Wet your fingers and mold cooked sticky rice into circular cake shapes. Wetting your fingers prevents the sticky rice from sticking to your fingers.[1] Then, gently pull away about 12.5 g (1 tbsp) of rice and mold it into a circular cake shape that is about in diameter. Use your fingers to press down on the rice and flatten it so it's thin, but don't press so hard that you make holes in the rice.[2]

    • Sticky white rice is best for this recipe because it holds its shape well.
    • It's better to make your rice cakes thinner rather than thicker, because they will expand a lot during cooking.
    • To make this process easier, you can press the rice into a simple circular cookie cutter or round mold.[3]
  2. Let the shaped cakes dry at room temperature for 1-2 hours. Check that they've dried completely by gently trying to bend and break them. They should be pretty firm when they are dry.

    • If you aren't quite ready to fry the cakes, you can store the dried ones in an airtight container indefinitely until you're ready.[4]
  3. Pour of olive oil into a skillet. You may need to add more or less depending on the size of your skillet. The layer of oil should still be relatively thin, but also deep enough so that the cakes can be fully submerged in the oil as they're cooking.

  4. Bring the oil to a boil. Use a cooking thermometer placed in the skillet to know when the oil is at the right temperature. It's important to make sure that the oil is hot enough, because this results in a rice cake that is more crisp and less greasy.[5]

  5. Place 1-2 rice cakes in the oil. Using tongs, place the 1-2 rice cakes in the oil.[6] You're essentially going to deep-fry them.

    • Depending on the size of your pan, you may be able to cook more than 2 rice cakes at the same time.
  6. Remove the rice cakes from the oil when they rise to the surface. Use tongs to remove the cakes from the oil when they expand and rise to the surface — that's when you know that they're done. The rice cakes will cook pretty quickly, so usually about 30 seconds in the oil is plenty.[7] The rice should be fairly white with no discolorations.

  7. Serve the rice cakes within one day of making them. It's best to serve your cakes as soon as possible after frying them. The oil will cause the cakes to spoil quickly, so it's not recommended to store them and save them for later.[8]

[Edit]Making Cheesy Rice Cakes

  1. Mix cooked rice, egg, cheese, and spices in a bowl. Combine 200 g (1 c) rice with 1 egg in a bowl. Then add cheese. It's super easy because all the mixing is done in one bowl!

    • If you'd like, you can dress up this recipe by mixing half of a small onion (chopped), minced garlic, and red pepper flakes, onion powder, and parsley to taste.
    • This recipe also lends itself really well to experimenting. Add your favorite vegetables and spices to make the patties your own. Carrots or green onions might be yummy additions.[9]
  2. Form small patties with the rice. The size of the patties is up to you — they can be cookie-sized or pancake-sized. However, just remember that the larger the patties are, the longer they'll need to cook.

    • If you feel like your rice is not sticking together enough, add another egg to the mixture to increase the stickiness.
  3. Chill the patties for at least 30 minutes in the fridge. This will help them retain their shape when you fry them afterward. You'll want the rice to stick together as much as possible. You can leave them in the fridge for longer than this if necessary, but be sure they have at least 30 minutes to chill.

  4. Heat 14.79 to (1-2 tbsp) of olive oil in a skillet on medium high heat. The oil should form a thick coat over the bottom of the pan. You'll want the oil to be crackling and popping before you put the patties in.[10]

  5. Fry the patties for about 5 minutes on each side. You'll know that they're ready when the surface of the rice becomes golden brown. Remember, larger patties will probably need a few extra minutes to fully cook.

    • Be careful when flipping the patties, as they can easily break. This won't affect the taste at all, but they just won't look pretty on a plate.[11]
    • It's best to eat cheesy rice cakes right after eating them, as the oil will go rancid if you try to store it.



  • Before cooking, make sure that your olive oil is still good. Olive oil is usually fine to use within a year of purchase. If it develops any kind of bitter or rancid flavor, throw it out![12]
  • You can make this with normal short-grain rice cooked with a little more liquid to mimic sticky rice. However, long-grain rice like basmati won't keep its shape well.

[Edit]Things You'll Need

[Edit]Sticky Rice Cakes

  • Cookie cutter or mold (optional)
  • Skillet
  • Thermometer
  • Tongs

[Edit]Cheesy Rice Cakes

  • Medium-sized bowl
  • Skillet
  • Thermometer
  • Tongs
  • Refrigerator
  • Spatula


[Edit]Quick Summary

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How to Enjoy Being Single After Divorce

Wondering how to get started enjoying your single life after a divorce? It's totally normal to be a bit nervous about getting back out there, but there are so many opportunities waiting for you, and so many ways to live a surprising, active, and fun life as a single person. We’ll help you get started on embracing these opportunities with our guide on how to enjoy being single after a divorce.

This article is based on an interview with our professional matchmaker, dating coach and relationship expert, Cristina Morara, founder of Stellar Hitch Private Matchmaking.


[Edit]Take time to heal.

  1. Becoming single is a big change, so take time to acclimatize. Focus on taking care of your daily needs—eating, sleeping, and staying active. Although your emotions might be rocky for some time afterward, remember that you’ll gradually get used to your new life with time. Have faith in your own emotional strength and resilience.[1]
    Enjoy Being Single After Divorce Step 1.jpg

[Edit]Shift your mindset.

  1. Life is an adventure, and there are endless possibilities for you. Whenever you feel down about being single, tell yourself the truth either in your head or out loud: being single is an opportunity to open yourself up to new things. Focus on the positives of being single—you might even want to make a list—and you can put yourself in the frame of mind to enjoy this chapter of your life.[2]
    Enjoy Being Single After Divorce Step 2.jpg
    • For example, you might write down in a journal that being single gives you a chance to focus on your own desires, not your spouse’s.
    • Happiness has a lot to do with your mindset. If you can remind yourself of the benefits of being single, you’re on the right track to enjoying this stage of your life.

[Edit]Plan out the life that you want.

  1. Design this new chapter of your life to prioritize your happiness. Think about this new chapter of your life as a project that you can design any way you want, and plan out your goals in writing. It’s exciting to do this: you’re the director of your life, and you get to decide how the show goes. Now that you’re single, there’s absolutely nothing holding you back from achieving goals that you might have kept on the back burner during your marriage.[3]
    Enjoy Being Single After Divorce Step 3.jpg
    • For example, you might find that being single gives you more time to focus on your career. Or, you might find that your divorce has made you realize that you’d rather spend less time on work and more time getting involved with your community. This choice, or imagining another one entirely, is completely up to you.

[Edit]Pick up a new hobby.

  1. A creative activity can bring a lot of meaning to your life. If you’ve ever wanted to try painting, grow a garden, or get started on your long-awaited novel, now is the time. You might be able to surprise yourself with how creative you can be, and find joy by making things that produce it.
    Enjoy Being Single After Divorce Step 4.jpg
    • If you need to give yourself a little push, joining a class to learn a new hobby is a great start. Check out any cooking or art classes in your area, or join a writing group.[4]

[Edit]Reconnect with your surroundings.

  1. The place where you live is full of opportunities for happiness. While our phones and screens can often end up making us feel pretty isolated, observing your neighborhood and the natural world can give you a feeling of connection. Smile and say hello to everyone, take walks in the woods or in a park, and find joy in the real world, not the virtual one.[5]
    Enjoy Being Single After Divorce Step 5.jpg
    • When you’re out there exploring the world, you might run into the chance to spark a new romantic connection. There’s no need to push yourself into this if you’re not ready—being single might just be too good to give up—but keep an open mind, and see where life takes you.

[Edit]Say yes to every invitation.

  1. Every opportunity is a chance to squeeze more out of life. Isolation can feel pretty tempting after a divorce, but don’t fall for this trap. If a friend or even an acquaintance invites you out somewhere, give it a try—the worst thing that can happen is a boring night. Keeping yourself active and social is an important part of enjoying your life when single.[6]
    Enjoy Being Single After Divorce Step 6.jpg
    • There are some exceptions here. If someone is making you feel unsafe, trust your gut and consider refusing their invitation to hang out.
    • Saying yes to every invitation doesn’t mean that you have to avoid being home. Although some people find it hard to be at home alone after a divorce, finding activities that you enjoy—like reading, taking care of tasks around the house, or even watching movies—can keep your home feeling like a safe space.

[Edit]Join clubs and groups.

  1. Group activities are fun ways to meet new people. Whether you’re interested in joining a book club to keep your mind active, a sports league to stay fit, or a professional networking group to make new career connections, there’s a group of people out there waiting for you.[7]
    Enjoy Being Single After Divorce Step 7.jpg
    • If your town has a local community center, this can be a great way to find local clubs or groups. You can also use a website like Meetup.com, where clubs look for members or even make your own and invite some friends.

[Edit]Lean on your support system.

  1. Your friends and family are sources of meaningful connection. The more time and effort that you pour into these relationships, the more they can prosper and meet your emotional needs. Pick up the phone and give your friends and family a call, invite them over for a meal or coffee, or plan a trip with them.[8]
    Enjoy Being Single After Divorce Step 8.jpg
    • Many people feel anxious after divorce when they think about getting older without their partner. But by having a good support system of friends and family, you can keep loneliness at bay—many single people are able to live lives that have even greater foundations of emotional support by doing this.

[Edit]Throw dinner parties.

  1. Keep your evenings fun with regular dinner parties. Invite your friends, and tell them to bring their friends—growing your social circle and playing the part of a good host can give your new life as a single person a sense of excitement. Spend the afternoon putting together the perfect menu, or if you’d rather spend your time doing something else, get some food catered or organize a pot-luck.[9]
    Enjoy Being Single After Divorce Step 9.jpg
    • Plenty of people throw themselves divorce parties to celebrate the start of a new chapter. This can be a great idea if your divorce is still pretty recent, but no issue if you want to throw yourself a belated one.

[Edit]Travel by yourself.

  1. Discover yourself by exploring a new place on your own. We’re rarely as in touch with who we are or what we want than when we put ourselves into unfamiliar environments. It can feel a little intimidating to fly off to a foreign country all by yourself, or even just drive to the next state over, but remember that the whole world is yours to explore.[10]
    Enjoy Being Single After Divorce Step 10.jpg

[Edit]Approach new connections with an open mind.

  1. Meeting new people without expectations can bring a lot of joy. If you’d like to casually date, that choice is yours to make—being single can be really liberating, and there’s no need to immediately find a new relationship. Your divorce gives you the chance to ask yourself if you want a new partner sometime soon, and think about what kind of person they should be.[11]
    Enjoy Being Single After Divorce Step 11 Version 2.jpg
    • If you don’t want to date, that’s also a good decision. Focus on meeting new people without any romantic expectations, and see where it leads you.

[Edit]Talk to a therapist if you're struggling.

  1. Therapists are skilled at dealing with the fallout from divorce. Don’t feel embarrassed or hesitant to reach out to a mental health professional—there’s no stigma in talking to someone who has helped people going through the same situation, just wisdom. A therapist can give you a space to talk about your feelings and anxieties, and can offer you suggestions to help you get more enjoyment out of your life.[12]
    Enjoy Being Single After Divorce Step 11.jpg
    • Divorce support groups are another option to connect with others while processing your feelings. Try to find one in your area if you think this is something you could use.


  1. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/better-divorce/202104/how-heal-divorce
  2. [v161578_b01]. 14 October 2020.
  3. [v161578_b01]. 14 October 2020.
  4. [v161578_b01]. 14 October 2020.
  5. [v161578_b01]. 14 October 2020.
  6. [v161578_b01]. 14 October 2020.
  7. [v161578_b01]. 14 October 2020.
  8. [v161578_b01]. 14 October 2020.
  9. https://www.oprahdaily.com/life/relationships-love/a32710347/divorce-party-ideas/
  10. [v161578_b01]. 14 October 2020.
  11. https://www.goodhousekeeping.com/life/relationships/a26537409/dating-after-divorce-tips/
  12. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/better-divorce/202104/how-heal-divorce

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How to Sing Clearly

An important part of being a good singer is being able to produce a good tone while singing clearly. You want your listeners to understand your words so that they can better connect with you and your music. Accomplish this by being aware of your physical presence and posture, and by consistently practicing vocal techniques.


[Edit]Practicing Proper Physical Techniques

  1. Warm up with tongue trills to release tension and improve your tone. You can trill your tongue by holding your mouth open and placing your tongue either on the roof of your mouth or allowing it to rest with the tip touching the back of your bottom teeth. Take a deep breath and vibrate your tongue. It should sound similar to a cat purring.[1]
    Sing Clearly Step 1 Version 2.jpg
    • When the tongue is full of tension and in the wrong position, it can block the tone and cause the sound to be swallowed—making you sound throaty. A relaxed tongue will allow the tone to flow freely and sound more clear.[2]
    • In general, it is helpful to release the tension in your entire body before singing.
  2. Control your breath flow by singing long tones. After doing lip trills, sing a note softly, then slowly increase the volume.[3] Practice getting softer, louder, then softer again. This exercise can help you stay on pitch while also strengthening your breath control.[4]
    Sing Clearly Step 2 Version 2.jpg
  3. Keep your chin pointed downward while singing. Point your chin about in toward your chest and down toward the ground. Keep your chin firmly in place as you sing the notes of an Ah scale.[5]
    Sing Clearly Step 3 Version 2.jpg
    • It may feel more natural to lift your chin upwards when you are projecting your voice. Try to avoid this—it may work temporarily, but can cause vocal problems in the long run. Keep it in place to gain more power and control and eliminate strain on your vocal cords.
    • Practice in front of the mirror to make sure you have the correct position.
  4. Keep your soft palate high and your tongue forward to get the right tone. A lowered soft palate creates a nasally sound when speaking or singing, which affects the clarity of your words. You need to create space at the back of your mouth by raising your soft palate in order to produce a clear, rich tone.[6]
    Sing Clearly Step 4.jpg
    • To find your soft palate, run your tongue across the roof of your mouth. The hard part is called your hard palate and the fleshy bit towards the back of your mouth is called your soft palate.
    • To raise your soft palate, yawn or laugh. That feeling of space in the back of your mouth is your soft palate being raised. You should have this feeling every time you sing.
    • Take a look at this YouTube video of someone singing inside an MRI machine to see what happens inside the body when you're singing: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J3TwTb-T044&t=157s.
  5. Check for a vibration in your face to confirm you are singing correctly. You should feel the vibration in your head, face, and lips. If you feel this vibration while you are singing, it means that you are resonating effectively. Proper resonance and vibration allows you to produce a clear tone with a strong projection without using excessive force.
    Sing Clearly Step 5.jpg
    • If you don’t feel the vibration in your face while you are singing, keep practicing your tongue trills and make sure your chin is pointed in and down while you are singing.
    • For additional help, try slowly shaking your head from side to side while humming.

[Edit]Controlling Your Vocals

  1. Control your breathing. Breathe in and out using your diaphragm (your stomach). When you breathe in, your stomach should expand. When you breathe out, it should go back. Make sure that there is no movement in your chest.[7]
    Sing Clearly Step 6.jpg
    • Singing from your chest or throat is shallow and unsupported, whereas singing from your diaphragm allows you to use your 'powerhouse' to support the notes you are singing and keep you in tune.
    • Note that you are not actually breathing from your diaphragm, since your diaphragm doesn’t hold air. This term is more of a reference to the way your diaphragm moves and responds to proper, controlled breathing.
    • Breathing while singing is different from breathing while talking or resting, which you do without much thought or effort. When singing, you have to pay attention to your breath control and ensure you have plenty of air.[8]
  2. Articulate your words clearly so listeners can understand the lyrics. Articulating your words clearly, distinctly, and fluently is extremely important while singing. Even if you have an amazing voice, your listeners can’t connect with you or your song if they can’t understand the words you are saying. Practice a few tongue twisters to help you improve your enunciation:[9]
    Sing Clearly Step 7.jpg
    • She says she shall sew a sheet.
    • Lesser leather never weathered lesser wetter weather.
    • She stood on the balcony, inexplicably mimicking him hiccupping, and amicably welcoming him home.[10]
  3. Be very deliberate when enunciating your vowels. Paying special attention to the vowels (A, E, I, O, U) can make a tremendous difference in the clarity of your singing. It helps to clearly differentiate the shape of your mouth for each vowel. It may feel silly or exaggerated, but this is one of the best ways to ensure the vowels are prominent and your voice is clear.[11]
    Sing Clearly Step 8.jpg
    • If you don’t focus on your vowels, you may have the tendency to sound like you are mumbling.
    • For instance, “Happy birthday” should sound like “Haaappeee biiirthdaaay”[12]
    • To sing a word that begins with a vowel, imagine adding a tiny bit of an "h" before the vowel and think about arriving at the note from a higher note. This technique, called easy onset, helps to prevent a harsh sound (glottal stop) as well as scooping up to the note.[13]
  4. Practice scales to see a noticeable improvement in your tone and clarity. Scales, as boring as they may be, are the best way of getting a clearer, brighter tone. Start with singing the classic solf├Ęge scale: do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti, do. You can also simply sing, “Ahh” as you sing through the scale. As you work on the scales, practice long notes and short notes, and high tones and low tones.[14]
    Sing Clearly Step 9.jpg
    • Exaggerate your sounds while practicing your scales. Your mouth should be open wide (but don't over-exaggerate this, as it can lead to tightness in your jaw) and your voice very loud. Try words like “Yeah” and “No.” Don’t go higher than is comfortable so you don’t put too much strain on your vocal cords.[15]
    • Search “practice scales” on YouTube to get access to a variety of videos that will guide you.
    • Set aside 5-10 minutes each day to devote to practicing scales.
  5. Replace the words in a well-known song to help you enunciate clearly. Think of a song that you know and can sing well. Now replace every word in the song with one of the following words: Mom, Nay, No, Go, Gug. This sort of easy practice can help you enunciate clearly while hitting every note.[16]
    Sing Clearly Step 10.jpg
    • Experiment with the different words to find which one is easiest for you. Once you find it, try mastering a couple different songs using your chosen word.


  • Drink a glass of room temperature water before singing. Cold water can make your voice raspy.
  • Record yourself often and listen for improvements.
  • It's better to sing for a few 15-minute periods than 1 hour-long period. Your vocal cords are delicate and need occasional rests.
  • Practice in short sessions consistently over a long period of time. If you only practice for a short time, you'll get short-term benefits.
  • Use an app like Vanido to improve the pitch and clarity of your singing voice.


  • Listen to your body. If your throat starts to hurt or you find it hard to breathe, stop singing to avoid damaging your vocal chords.

[Edit]Related wikiHows


[Edit]Quick Summary

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Thursday, 23 June 2022

How to Tie a Loop Knot

It's easy to create a loop on the end of a thread or line for a loop knot. These types of knots are particularly useful in fishing for attaching the hook to the line. Some common loop knots you can try are the Kreh loop knot, which can keep your line from snagging, and the perfection loop knot, which is an easy, tight knot. The surgeon's loop knot is a great beginner's knot since it relies on movements you likely already know.


[Edit]Using a Kreh Loop Knot

  1. Make an overhand knot. Cross the end of the thread back over itself. Leave about of thread toward the end of the line. Wrap it around the other side, and then pull the end back towards you through the middle of the loop. Tighten it up until the loop is a bit smaller than a dime.[1]

    • This knot is also called the non-slip knot. It's a tight knot, and it doesn't snag on weeds when fishing because the tag end of the line faces down towards the hook.
  2. Thread the hook on if you're using one. If you're using the knot for fishing, push the end of the string through the eye hole in the top of the hook. Pull the hook toward the knot you made earlier.[2]

  3. Push the end of the thread back through the loop. Keep the hook between the end of the line and the loop. Thread the end of the line back through the loop and up toward the main, longer part of the line.[3]

    • When choosing where to push the thread through, pick the side that's facing slightly downward toward the end of the thread.
  4. Wrap the thread around itself. Moving up the line toward the main part of the thread, take the tail end of the line and wrap it up and around the main part of the line 3-5 times. Turn the end back toward the bottom, and slip it through the loop again.[4]

    • This time, push it through the side of the loop that's facing slightly upward toward the rest of the thread.
  5. Tighten and adjust the loop. Pull on the end of the line slightly to tighten it and then add a little bit of water on the main part of the knot so you don't burn the line against itself. Pull on it until the knot tightens up completely, and chop off the end, leaving less than .[5]

    • To adjust the loop, pull on the end of the thread to make the loop smaller. Pull on the main part of the line to make the loop bigger.

[Edit]Making a Perfection Loop Knot

  1. Create a simple loop by passing the line behind itself. It's easier to do this loop on a table the first time. Lay the line out, and bring the end of the thread up toward the main part of the line. Pass it underneath the main line, creating a loop.[6]

    • You'll need to leave enough room at the end of the line to make another loop, so leave at least .
  2. Pass the end of the loop back over the top end of the other loop. Pick up the end of the line. Pass it over the main line again, including the top of the loop you just made. Create a second loop by tucking the end underneath the main line. The second loop will overlap the top of the first loop, like scales.[7]

    • If you want to add a hook, thread it onto the second loop before you pass the end of the line underneath the main line.
  3. Bring the end of the line between the 2 loops you've made. Cross the end over the main line again, but make it go between the edges of the other loops you've made. The end should come out the other side.[8]

    • Be careful not to stab yourself if you've added a hook to the line.
  4. Pull the second loop through the first loop you made. Stick your fingers through the first loop. Grab the edge of the second loop, including the hook. Pull it over the line you just pulled to the other side and out through the large loop.[9]

    • The second loop becomes the main loop of the knot.
  5. Tighten the knot. Make sure the hook is where it needs to be. Pull on the end of the line and the loop end until the knot forms. Keep pulling to tighten it up, completing the knot.[10]

[Edit]Tying a Surgeon's Loop Knot

  1. Pull the end of the line back up toward itself. You're going to double the line on itself to create this knot. Therefore, tug the end of the line back toward the main part of the line.[11]

    • Add the hook to the line now, keeping it at the bottom of the loop you just made.
    • Be sure to leave at least to tie the knot.
  2. Make an overhand knot with the doubled line. Keeping the doubled line against itself, wrap the new "end" (which is now a loop) over the line and back around the other side. On the other side, push the end through the circle you've just created and out the other side. Tighten it up slightly.[12]

  3. Wrap the "end" back through the overhand knot again. Take the loop end and wrap it around the back of the overhand knot. Pull it back through the overhand knot a second time. Tighten up the knot.[13]

    • The loop you've been using as the "end" of the line now becomes the main loop.


[Edit]Things You'll Need

  • Line or thread
  • Fishing hook, optional
  • Water, optional


[Edit]Quick Summary

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How to Build a Chicken Run

Are your chickens cooped up but you want to let them run outside? A chicken run, or an outdoor pen attached to the coop, will help solve your problems and protect your birds from any predators that may be lurking about. With standard tools and supplies that you can pick up from your hardware store, you can build your own safe enclosure and let your birds roam!


[Edit]Planning the Size and Location

  1. Create at least of outdoor space per chicken. Count how many chickens you have and calculate the total area your run needs to be. For example, if you have 10 chickens, you would need minimum for your chickens to be comfortable.
    Build a Chicken Run Step 1 Version 3.jpg
    • Build your chicken run larger than you need if you plan to grow your flock in the coming years.
  2. Plan the layout of your run next to your chicken coop. Lay boards on the ground to get an idea of the shape and size your chicken run will be. Aim to make the sides similar in length rather than long and narrow. This gives your chickens more room for roaming around.
    Build a Chicken Run Step 2 Version 3.jpg
    • Measure the planned length and width of the run to find the total area. Compare the area of the chicken run to the minimum requirement for the size of your flock.
    • Make sure one of the sides aligns with the small door built into the coop so the chickens can get in and out. If your coop doesn’t have a small door, cut one into the side with a saw.
    • Think about where you want to install the gate so you can access the run easily.
    • Account for how tall you need to make your run. You should comfortably be able to walk in and out of the run once it’s finished, so it should be over tall.
  3. Keep the run in the shade in warmer climates. Temperatures consistently over can be lethal for chickens if they’re in direct heat.[1] Chickens adapt to the cold better than the heat, so make sure the run isn’t in direct heat. Build your run so it has tree cover or another source of consistent shade throughout the day.[2]
    Build a Chicken Run Step 3 Version 3.jpg
  4. Let the run get full sun in cooler climates. Chickens can easily survive in low temperatures, but they don’t want to be cold all of the time. If you live in a climate that gets below often, make sure your run isn’t shaded.[3]
    Build a Chicken Run Step 4 Version 3.jpg
    • Find an area that gets even amounts of sun and shade throughout the day if you live in a climate that gets extreme highs and lows.

[Edit]Placing Posts and Building the Frame

  1. Dig a hole deep for your first fence post. Place the first fence post about from your coop so you can place a gate there. Use a shovel or a post digger to make a hole that is on each side.
    Build a Chicken Run Step 5 Version 2.jpg
    • Make sure your fence posts are at least tall.
    • Place a layer of gravel on the bottom of the hole to protect the post’s end from moisture.
    • Opt for a rot-resistant wood like cedar or white oak for your fence posts and supports.
  2. Set the post in the hole and pack the soil back in. Hold the pole firmly while you fill it back in with the dirt you removed. Compact the dirt with the bottom of your shovel or with your foot around the entire post. Use the extra dirt to form a mound around the bottom of the post to keep it in place.
    Build a Chicken Run Step 6 Version 2.jpg
    • Make concrete to fill your hole to keep your post from rotting in the future if you want.
  3. Space the other fence posts from one another. Use a tape measure to make sure the fence posts are equal distances apart so your chicken run has even support. Make sure the posts on opposite sides are in line with one another. Dig a hole and place the posts until they’re all set.
    Build a Chicken Run Step 7 Version 2.jpg
    • If your run is larger than wide, put a fence post inside the run for an added support beam. Make sure the post is in line with the outer posts on each side.
    • Saw the tops of the fence posts to the same height if they aren’t on level ground. Use a handsaw and a level so all of your posts are the same height. Make your chicken run at least tall so you can easily walk inside.
  4. Attach boards across the top of the run. Run the boards horizontally so they go from one fence post on one side to a post on the other side. Use a drill with the screwdriver bit attached to attach wood screws to the top of the fence posts.
    Build a Chicken Run Step 8 Version 2.jpg
    • If you have supports in the middle of your run, make sure to attach screws to them as well.

[Edit]Installing the Fencing

  1. Use welded wire to keep out predators. Calculate the area of fencing you need by measuring the height and length of one side of your run and multiplying them together. Add to each height measurement as excess. Repeat this for each side as well as the top of the run and add the areas together to find the total amount of fencing you need.
    Build a Chicken Run Step 9 Version 2.jpg
    • Fencing can be purchased at your local hardware or farm animal care stores.
    • The wire is small enough so raccoons, foxes, and weasels are kept out of your run and coop.
    • If you have larger predators in your area, such as bears, use a chain link dog fence wrapped in smaller welded wires to protect your birds.
    • Fencing on top of the chicken run will help protect your flock from owls, hawks, and other predatory birds.
  2. Dig a deep trench around the perimeter of your run. Use a shovel to dig your trench. Place the bottom of your fence in the trench on the outside of the fence posts and fill the dirt back in. Having your fence below the ground will protect your flock from digging animals like foxes and coyotes.
    Build a Chicken Run Step 10 Version 2.jpg
  3. Staple the fence every to the fence posts. Wrap the fence horizontally around the outside of the fence posts. Use a staple gun or a hammer to drive U-shaped staples into the fence posts. Place the staple in the middle of the post so that the ends of the staple go into 2 different links.
    Build a Chicken Run Step 11 Version 2.jpg
    • Leave a gap in the fencing where you plan to hang your gate.
  4. Lay the fence on top of the run. Use a ladder to reach the top of your run and cover the entire area with fencing to keep out flying or climbing predators, like hawks or raccoons. Staple the fence on top of the posts you’ve set in the ground to secure it.
    Build a Chicken Run Step 12 Version 2.jpg
  5. Frame your fence with boards to secure it. First, screw horizontal supports on the top, middle, and bottom of each fence post so the fence is sandwiched between the wood. Use your drill and wood screws to keep the boards in place and make sure they are flush with one another. Then add boards vertically between the horizontal supports by screwing them in every .
    Build a Chicken Run Step 13 Version 2.jpg

[Edit]Adding Finishing Touches

  1. Install a gate with a spring so the door shuts automatically. Attach 2 hinges from the top and bottom of the fence post with screws and a drill. Hang the door so the bottom is flush with the ground. Screw in the hinges on the side of the door to attach it. Hook one end of a hooked spring to the fencing on the gate and the other end to the fencing of your run.
    Build a Chicken Run Step 14 Version 3.jpg
    • Gate doors can be purchased or built on your own.
    • Make sure the door opens out from the run. Otherwise, the spring won’t force the door closed.
    • Make sure the spring is tight and unstretched. This way, the gate will snap back into place after it’s been opened.
  2. Line the bottom of the run with straw or a bedding alternative. Spread chopped straw evenly on the ground of the run so your chickens feel comfortable while they are outside. Alternatives to straw are leaves, construction-grade sand, or wood shavings.[4]
    Build a Chicken Run Step 15 Version 2.jpg
    • Chopped straw can be purchased at your local farm care store.
    • Rake your leaves into the run in the fall once they start to fall for free outdoor bedding.
    • Change the bedding once it starts to smell or once it looks soiled.
  3. Place a container of food and water inside the run. Cover the top of the feeder with foil so your chickens can’t get into it and so it is protected from the elements. Hang a chicken waterer from one of the supports on the top of your run with an eye-bolt so they water stays clean.[5]
    Build a Chicken Run Step 16 Version 2.jpg
    • If your coop has enough space, keep your food and water inside to protect it from the elements and mold. Make sure the chickens all can fit comfortably inside along with them.


  • Predatory birds or climbing predators will try to access your chickens through the top of the run. Cover it with fencing as well to make sure your birds are protected.

[Edit]Things You’ll Need

  • Shovel or post digger
  • fence posts
  • Gravel
  • Tape measure
  • Handsaw
  • boards
  • Wood screws
  • Drill
  • welded wire fencing
  • U-shaped staples
  • Staple gun or hammer
  • Food and water containers
  • Straw


[Edit]Quick Summary

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